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 Asunto: LMSS: Strauss, biografía
NotaPublicado: 23 Mar 2005 12:57 
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1864 Born 11 June in Munich, Bavaria. His father, Franz Strauss, is the much respected if musically conservative first horn in the Court Orchestra
1869 Piano lessons with August Tombo, harpist of Munich Court Orchestra
1870 First steps in composition, beginning with Schneiderpolka (‘Tailor’s Polka’) notated by his father
1871 First visits to the opera, where he is enraptured as much by the orchestra as by the magic scenes in Weber’s Der Freischütz and the comedy in Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte
1872 Begins violin studies with Benno Walter, his second cousin and leader of the Court Orchestra
1874 Enters the Royal Grammar School, the Ludwigs-Gymnasium, where he enjoys a classical education for the next seven years and has many works performed, including in 1881 a setting of a choral stasimon from Sophocles’ Electra
1875 Composition lessons with Hofkapellmeister Friedrich Wilhelm Mayer
1877 Scores first orchestral work, a Serenade in G major, dedicated to Mayer ‘in gratitude’, which launches a period of prolific composition
1881 First performances include String Quartet in A major, Symphony in D minor (conducted by the esteemed Hermann Levi and well-received) and a Festive March published as his official Op.1 with costs defrayed by his uncle, Georg Pschorr. The latter is performed by Wilde Gungl, an amateur orchestra conducted by Strauss’s father with which he plays violin and conducts occasional rehearsals
1882 Begins two terms at Munich University, studying philosophy, aesthetics and art history. Dresden premiere of first major work to survive in the mainstream repertoire, the Serenade in Eb for thirteen wind instruments.

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1883 Members of distinguished Meiningen Court Orchestra under the great Hans von Bülow play the Suite for Wind. Leaves with father for Berlin, where he hears works by Brahms for the first time.
1884 Conducts Meiningen Court Orchestra for the first time, in Suite for Wind. Symphony in F minor given under the auspices of the New York Philharmonic Society.
1885 Takes up post of assistant to Bülow at Meiningen, succeeding him as principal conductor later in the year; competition includes Gustav Mahler and Felix Weingartner. Strongly influenced by Meiningen violinist and composer Alexander Ritter, who turns him towards Wagner, Liszt and Berlioz.
1886 Horn Concerto (No.1) premiered at Meiningen, with orchestra’s first horn Gustav Leinhos and Bülow conducting. First visit to Italy inspires musical ideas for symphonic fantasy Aus Italien, premiered the following year. Becomes third conductor at Munich Court Opera.
1887 Meets the family of Major-General Adolf de Ahna on vacation in Feldafing, outside Munich, and undertakes to give singing lessons to the eldest daughter, Pauline.
1888 Completes another programmatic orchestral work, Macbeth, in dark contrast to Don Juan, which he begins to sketch that summer on a second inspiring visit to Italy.
1889 Works as a musical assistant on Parsifal at Bayreuth, and begins long association with the ‘widow of Wahnfried’, Cosima Wagner. Follows in Liszt’s footsteps as Kapellmeister at Weimar, where he conducts first performance of Don Juan.
1890 Conducts newly-completed Tod und Verklärung and Burleske at Eisenach, and a revised version of Macbeth in Weimar
1891 First serious illness, pneumonia – postdating composition of Tod und Verklärung – does not prevent him from returning to Bayreuth as Cosima’s guest
1892 January 17 ‘the most wonderful day of my life’, conducting an uncut Tristan in Weimar, with Pauline, a house soprano and already singing at Bayreuth, as Isolde. After another severe illness departs for Greece and Egypt, where he continues work on Guntram, his own operatic homage to Wagner.
1893 Emancipated by his travels, decides on a libertarian ending of Guntram that horrifies Cosima and the inner circle of Wagnerites. Later regards this as his turning point: ‘My path was clear at last for uninhibitedly independent creation’. Conducts premiere of Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel in Weimar.
1894 Conducts premiere of Guntram in Weimar, with Pauline as the heroine Freihild. Pauline sings Elisabeth in several Bayreuth performances of Tannhäuser conducted by Strauss. They are married in September and he writes his first songs for her, including Morgen! and Cäcilie, as a wedding present. Begins season as conductor of Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and is re-engaged by Levi at Munich Court Opera, where he is to conduct Mozart’s Cosi fan tutte and help restore the work to its rightful place in the repertoire.
1895 Till Eulenspiegel, having been drafted as an opera the previous year, is premiered in Cologne. Its success offsets subsequent failure of Guntram in Munich.
1896 Strauss’s admiration for poetry, if not philosophy, of Nietzsche finds musical fulfilment in Also sprach Zarathustra, which he premieres in Frankfurt. Conducting engagements in many European cities, including Moscow.
1897 Birth of son Franz, while touring the Tennyson-based melodrama Enoch Arden with Munich intendant Ernst von Possart as reciter. Strauss notes ideas for ‘Symphonic poem Held und Welt (Hero and World)...and as satyr-play to accompany it – Don Quichotte.’ First conducting engagements in Paris and London.

Imagen

1898 Premiere of Don Quixote. Helps to found a guild for the promotion of new music, the Genossenschaft Deutscher Tonsetzer, the first step towards copyright protection for composers. Leaves Munich for Berlin, where he has signed a contract as Kapellmeister of the Court Opera.
1899 Conducts first performance of Ein Heldenleben in Frankfurt and spends much of year composing songs
1900 Approached by Viennese poet and playwright Hugo von Hofmannsthal in Paris, with suggestion of a ballet scenario (gracefully rejected). Works on one-act comic opera Feuersnot, to a libretto by satirist Ernst von Wolzogen.
1902 Gustav Mahler conducts Feuersnot in Vienna
1903 Already at work setting Oscar Wilde’s Salome to music when he sees Max Reinhardt’s Berlin production. Travels to England for London Strauss Festival and begins Symphonia Domestica on holiday with family on Isle of Wight. Honorary doctorate at Heidelberg, where he premieres his Battle of Hastings cantata Taillefer.
1904 Travels to United States for concerts and recitals centred around New York premiere of Symphonia Domestica (described by one newspaper as ‘Papa and Mamma and Baby Celebrated in Huge Conglomeration of Orchestral Music’).
1905 Father Franz dies, aged 83, six months before triumphant Dresden premiere of Salome. Agrees to set Hofmannsthal’s version of Sophocles’ Electra, their first collaboration.
1906 Salome continues to enjoy widespread success, with Mahler battling vainly for its acceptance in Vienna.
1908 Works on finishing score of Elektra. Completion of villa at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavarian alps, financed partly by royalty income from Salome
1909 Elektra premiered in Dresden. Hofmannsthal begins his first opera libretto for Strauss, Der Rosenkavalier; with musical sketches for the first two acts completed by end of the summer. Starts appointment as General Music Director of Berlin Court Opera, and takes over Berlin Court Symphony Concerts from Felix Weingartner.
1910 Death of mother, Josepha, aged 73. Completes Der Rosenkavalier.

Imagen

1911 Following its Dresden premiere, Der Rosenkavalier is operatic sensation of the year. A letter from Hofmannsthal outlines germ of what will become the fairy-tale opera Die Frau ohne Schatten and a ‘little Molière project’ for which Strauss begins to compose Ariadne auf Naxos. First sketches for Eine Alpensinfonie.
1912 ‘The first Ariadne’ – the opera along with incidental numbers for Hofmannsthal’s adaptation of Le Bourgeois gentilhomme – completed and performed in Stuttgart, directed by Max Reinhardt.
1914 Josephslegende, an extravaganza for Diaghilev in designs by Bakst opens in Paris, with Leonid Massine as the saintly Joseph
1915 Progress on Die Frau ohne Schatten is seriously halted by Hofmannsthal’s low wartime spirits. First performance of Eine Alpensinfonie, dedicated to Dresden Court Orchestra.
1916 In mood to become ‘the Offenbach of the 20th century’, completes new ‘backstage’ prologue in parlando style for Ariadne auf Naxos, which is also slightly amended. Labours over conclusion of Die Frau ohne Schatten.
1917 More music for Hofmannsthal’s Molière – this time the play Der Bürger als Edelmann without the opera Ariadne. Having discussed the subject of a realistic, semi-comic marriage-opera with the playwright Hermann von Bahr, writes his own libretto for Intermezzo.
1919 Accepts post as director of the Vienna State Opera (jointly with Franz Schalk), where the premiere of Die Frau ohne Schatten takes place
1920 Following move to Vienna, gives up Berlin Staatskapelle concerts. First of two South American tours (the second in 1923) including performances of Salome and Elektra.
1922 Conducts Mozart at Salzburg Festival, where he is made an honorary member, and accompanies soprano Elisabeth Schumann in Lieder recitals.
1923 Follows Lully arrangements in Der Bürger als Edelmann with a ‘dance suite’ based on Couperin’s harpsichord pieces. Begins new collaboration with Hofmannsthal, Die ägyptische Helena.
1924 60th birthday celebrations in Vienna include premiere of confectionary ballet Schlagobers. Disagreements with his co-director leads to Strauss’s resignation from the State Opera. Premiere of Intermezzo takes place in Dresden.
1925 Composes Parergon zur Symphonia Domestica in thanksgiving at son’s recovery from typhus
1927 Completion of two Greek projects, the Panathenäenzug for piano and orchestra and Die ägyptische Helena
1928 Hofmannsthal proposes Viennese comedy Der Fiaker als Graf (‘The Cabby as Count’) and sends draft text for Act 1 of what is to become Arabella
1929 Unexpected death of Hofmannsthal, leaving unrevised text for Acts II and III of Arabella, which Strauss is to complete in his memory.
1931 Conducts Mozart’s Idomeneo in Vienna, in a performing edition including music of his own.
1932 Stefan Zweig, the great Austrian man of letters, suggests several opera librettos including an adaptation of Ben Jonson’s Epicoene, or The Silent Woman
1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany. Strauss is chosen to replace Bruno Walter and Toscanini in conducting engagements and is appointed president of Reichsmusikkammer by Goebbels without consultation.
1934 Composes Olympic Hymn for the 1936 Games in Berlin, but comes under increasing attack for his collaboration with Zweig, who – like Strauss’s daughter-in-law Alice – is Jewish.
1935 First performance of Die schweigsame Frau goes ahead, but the run is cancelled. Nazis intercept a letter from Strauss to Zweig naively hoping for continuance of their relationship and asking him ‘do you imagine I have ever been led in the course of a single action by the thought that I am Germanic (perhaps, qui le sait?)’ Forced to resign his Reichsmusikkammer post. Takes up a legacy of Zweig, the ‘peace-opera’ Friedenstag, with the scholarly Joseph Gregor.
1936 Retreats into radiant world of Daphne – a one-act Greek opera in serene contrast to Elektra. Travels to London to conduct Ariadne and receive Royal Philharmonic Society’s Gold Medal.
1937 Convalescing from illness, completes Daphne in the winter sunshine at Taormina, Sicily
1938 Premieres of Friedenstag and Daphne. Returns from Italy to begin work on another radiant mythology, Die Liebe der Danae, based on an old idea of Hofmannsthal.
1939 75th birthday celebrations soon overshadowed by outbreak of war.
1940 Completes Die Liebe der Danae, with its deeply moving closing scene of Jupiter’s farewell, convinced that it will be his swansong. But begins what he sees as a diversion on the rival claims of words and music in opera, Capriccio, to a libretto by the conductor Clemens Krauss.
1941 Another Couperin divertissement premiered as a ballet, Verklungene Feste, in Munich. Takes refuge with his family in Vienna, returning to the Belvedere apartment they had vacated at the start of the war.
1942 Intentions to celebrate Vienna Philharmonic’s centenary with a symphonic poem about the Danube come to little, but continues to conduct and record with the orchestra. Capriccio premiered in Munich with Krauss conducting.
1943 Premiere of Horn Concerto No.2, first of the so-called ‘Indian summer’ instrumental works in which he looks back to the compositions of his youth.
1944 Celebrations for 80th birthday take place quietly in Vienna. At Salzburg, Die Liebe der Danae only reaches dress-rehearsal stage owing to the closure of all German theatres after the attempt on Hitler’s life.
1945 Composes Metamorphosen as a memorial after the bombings of the Munich, Dresden and Vienna opera houses. At end of war Pittsburgh Symphony oboist John de Lancie, then an American soldier billeted in Garmisch, visits the composer and sows idea for Oboe Concerto. Strauss completes it before moving to Switzerland with Pauline. Renews acquaintance with Dr Ernst Roth of Boosey & Hawkes, who had acquired the rights to many of his operas during the war, and arranges for the publishing of his future and unpublished works.
1946 Exile continues in Switzerland, where several important premieres take place, including Metamorphosen conducted by Paul Sacher.
1947 Relations with England re-established by Strauss Festival in London, where the composer shares conducting with Sir Thomas Beecham.
1948 The last of the late instrumental works, the Duett-Concertino for clarinet, bassoon and small orchestra, premiered in Lugano. Cleared by the DeNazification Board. Composes what we know as the last of the Four Last Songs, to a poem by Eichendorff, followed by the three Hesse settings.

Imagen

1949 Conducts for the last time following 85th birthday celebrations. After several heart attacks and six weeks of illness, dies peacefully at Garmisch on 8 September.
1950 Pauline dies on 13 May, nine days before the first performance of the Four Last Songs at London’s Royal Albert Hall, with Kirsten Flagstad as soloist and Furtwängler conducting.


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NotaPublicado: 29 Mar 2005 20:26 
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Registrado: 23 Mar 2004 22:20
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Por poner un comentario, el episodio más oscuro de su biografía es el de su presunta colaboración (al menos pasiva, de dejarse querer) con el nazismo, algo que, por otra parte, buena parte de la sociedad alemana de la época apoyó o consintió.

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Sans parler du positif, je suis vieux, mais je suis vif.


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NotaPublicado: 30 Mar 2005 10:29 
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Amfortas escribió:
Por poner un comentario, el episodio más oscuro de su biografía es el de su presunta colaboración (al menos pasiva, de dejarse querer) con el nazismo, algo que, por otra parte, buena parte de la sociedad alemana de la época apoyó o consintió.


Bueno, no recuerdo ahora quién le reprochó que compusiese Metamorphosen en homenaje a las óperas de Munich, Viena y Dresde (bombardeadas en la II Guerra Mundial) y ni una sola nota dedicada a los MUERTOS. Como reprochándole que se ocupase más de las cosas materiales (aun las que son cultura y arte) antes que por las personas... :roll:


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NotaPublicado: 14 Nov 2007 16:22 
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El idiota escribió:
Como reprochándole que se ocupase más de las cosas materiales (aun las que son cultura y arte) antes que por las personas... :roll:


Pero las personas pasan y la cultura y el arte permanecen. A mí me parece correcto que así sea, si no ahora no disfrutaríamos de nada... :oops:


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