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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 28 Nov 2015 4:13 
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Bienvenida la reseña de Weinberg, autor de varias óperas. Aun no he podido oir "el idiota", pero para mi, "la pasajera" es la mejor ópera de la segunda mitad del SXX

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 04 Dic 2015 22:11 
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Gaetano Braga (1829-1907) He was born in Giulianova in Abruzzi. Braga entered the Naples Conservatory in 1841 to study the cello with Ciandelli and composition with Mercadante, indicating talent in both disciplines. He left in 1852 with the title ‘Maestrino di violoncello’ and made many concert tours of Europe and the USA. In Vienna he was briefly a member of the Mayseder Quartet. In 1853 his first opera, Alina, was produced at Naples. Over the next 20 years, during which he made Paris and London his principal homes, he composed another eight; though some were staged in Vienna, Paris and Lisbon as well as in Italy, they scarcely fulfilled his early promise, and none remained in the repertory. In 1868 La Scala turned down his Ruy Blas in favour of Marchetti’s version; it remained unperformed and unpublished, colouring his decision to remain abroad for some 30 years, continuing a successful solo playing career besides composing. As a voice teacher Braga was much sought after; he coached Erminia Frezzolini, towards the end of her career, and Adelaide Borghi-Mamo, for whom he also wrote salon works. Braga’s other compositions include orchestral, chamber and vocal music, fantasias on well-known operatic themes, two cello concertos and a method (1878), and salon pieces that enjoyed popularity during his lifetime. Still known is his Leggenda valacca, under the name ‘La Serenata’ or ‘The Angel’s Serenade’, originally a song with cello or violin obbligato; despite describing it themselves as a ‘cloying melody’, in 1914 HMV listed no fewer than four recordings of it made by such prominent artists as Gluck and Zimbalist, and McCormack and Kreisler.

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Il ritratto, comedia lírica en dos actos (1858). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 11 Dic 2015 22:26 
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Pierre Ancelin (1934-2001) Born in Cannes, Ancelin studied pedagogy and music history at the conservatories of Aix-en-Provence and Marseille, then followed the course of aesthetics of Olivier Messiaen in Paris. He was mostly self-taught in composition and orchestration, although he followed the advice of Ernest Ansermet and Frank Martin. From 1963, he worked regularly in French literature and various music magazines abroad. In 1975, he founded the UNCM (National Union of Composers of Music) with Andre Jolivet, Daniel Lesur and Henri Sauguet. He presided over the union until 2000. Ancelin was appointed inspector general of music at the city of Paris in 1978 by Marcel Landowski. He was also behind other groups in favor of music, such as the European Union of Composers (1992), the French Society of Contemporary Music, and Music Action Philip Morris. At the latter, he presided a commission comprising, among others, Sauguet, Landowski, Rolf Liebermann, and Gabriel Bacquier, charged with discovering and promoting young French interpreters, as well as the creation and dissemination of French works, both in France and abroad.

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Filius Hominis, ópera sacra en diez cuadros (1989). Cuadro cuarto.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 18 Dic 2015 21:59 
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Christian Ludwig Boxberg (1670-1729). He was born in Sondershausen, Germany. Boxberg studied at the Leipzig Thomasschule between 1682 and 1686, presumably receiving music instruction from the Kantor, Johann Schelle. In 1692 he accepted a position as organist in Grossenhain, north of Dresden, which he retained until 1702. However, his early career was centred on Leipzig where he was active as librettist, singer and opera composer. He was a student of Nikolaus A. Strungk, director of the Leipzig Opera, 1688–1692, whose opera Amyntas und Phyllis, now lost, was completed after his death by Boxberg and given at Leipzig in 1700. Boxberg wrote at least five librettos for operas by Strungk and sang in performances of those works. He seems also to have been active at the court of Ansbach during 1697–1698 where his most important operas (for which he also wrote librettos) were first performed: Orion, Die verschwiegene Treue and Sardanapolus. Only the last score is extant. In 1702 he gave up his operatic career to become organist at the church of Sts Peter und Paul in Görlitz. He wrote a number of cantatas during this period, including both choral works and solo cantatas for soprano and trio sonata accompaniment.

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Sardanapolus, ópera en tres actos (1698). Aria del acto primero, Keine Qual soll mich erschreken. Aria del acto primero, Nach Ruhm und nach Ehre.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 26 Dic 2015 0:49 
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Franz Adolf Berwald (1796-1868) Berwald was born in Stockholm and came from a family with four generations of musicians; his father, a violinist in the Royal Opera Orchestra, taught Franz the violin from an early age; he soon appeared in concerts. In 1811, Karl XIII came to power and reinstated the Royal Chapel; the following year Berwald started working there, as well as playing the violin in the court orchestra and the opera, receiving lessons from Edouard du Puy, and also started composing. The summers were off-season for the orchestra, and Berwald travelled around Scandinavia, Finland and Russia. Of his works from that time, a septet and a serenade he still considered worthwhile music in his later years. In 1818 Berwald started publishing the Musikalisk journal, later renamed Journal de musique, a periodical with easy piano pieces and songs by various composers as well as some of his own original work. In 1821, his Violin Concerto was premiered by his brother August. It was not well received; some people in the audience burst out laughing during the slow movement. His family got into dire economic circumstances after the death of his father in 1825. Berwald tried to get several scholarships, but only got one from the King, which enabled him to study in Berlin, where he worked hard on operas despite not having any chance to put them on the stage. To make a living, Berwald started an orthopedic and physiotherapy clinic in Berlin in 1835, which turned out to be profitable. Some of the orthopedic devices he invented were still in use decades after his death. He stopped composing during his time in Berlin, resuming only in 1841 with a move to Vienna and marriage to Mathilde Scherer. In 1842 a concert of his tone poems at the Redoutensaal at the Hofburg Imperial Palace received extremely positive reviews, and over the course of the next three years Berwald wrote four symphonies.

The Symphony No. 1 in G minor, "Sérieuse", was the only one of Berwald's four symphonies that was performed in his lifetime. In 1843, it was premiered in Stockholm with his cousin Johan Frederik conducting the Royal Opera House Orchestra. At that same concert, his operetta Jag går i kloster (I enter a monastery) was also performed, but its success is credited to one of the roles having been sung by Jenny Lind. In 1846, Jenny Lind sang in one of Berwald's cantatas. Another operetta, The Modiste, had less success in 1845. His Piano Concerto, finished in 1855, intended for his piano pupil Hilda Aurora Thegerström, who continued her studies with Antoine François Marmontel and Franz Liszt, did not see the light of day until 1904, when Berwald's granddaughter Astrid performed it at a Stockholm student concert. Particularly in its brilliant last movement it may be compared favourably to Robert Schumann or Edvard Grieg. Its three movements are played without a break. Berwald's music was not recognised favourably in Sweden during his lifetime, even drawing hostile newspaper reviews, but fared a little better in Germany and Austria. The Mozarteum Salzburg made him an honorary member in 1847. When Berwald returned to Sweden in 1849, he managed a glass works at Sandö in Ångermanland owned by Ludvig Petré, an amateur violinist. During that time Berwald focused his attention on producing chamber music. One of his few operas to be staged in his lifetime, Estrella de Soria, was heartily applauded at its premiere at the Royal Theater in April 1862, and was given four more performances in the same month. Following this success, he wrote Drottningen av Golconda (The Queen of Golconda), which would have been premiered in 1864, but was not, due to a change of directors at the Royal Opera.

In 1866, Berwald received the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, in recognition of his musical achievements. The following year, the Board of the Royal Musical Academy appointed Berwald professor of musical composition at the Stockholm Conservatory, only to have the Conservatory Board reverse the decision a few days later, and appoint another. The royal family stepped in, and Berwald got the post. At around that time he was also given many important commissions, but he did not live to fulfill them all. Berwald died in Stockholm in 1868 of pneumonia and was interred there in the Norra begravningsplatsen (Northern Cemetery). The second movement of the Symphony No. 1 was played at his funeral. Ten years after Berwald's death, his Symphony No. 4 in E-flat major, "Naïve", was premiered in 1878 (the originally planned 1848 premiere in Paris having been cancelled because of the political unrest of the time). This gap between composition and first performance was relatively short, however, compared to what befell the Symphony No. 2 in D major, "Capricieuse" and Symphony No. 3 in C major, "Singulière". Those two pieces were not premiered until 1914 and 1905, respectively.

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Estrella de Soria, opera en tres actos (1841-1848). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736) Nació en Iesi, actual Italia. A pesar de su corta vida, fue autor de una obra tan considerable como original, en la que se anuncian los acentos del estilo galante vigente en la música europea de mediados del siglo XVIII. De origen humilde, dio muestras de una salud precaria desde su más tierna infancia. Tras seguir estudios musicales con maestros como Francesco Durante, el drama sacro San Guglielmo d’Aquitania (1731) significó el inicio de su madurez como compositor. Con posterioridad a dicha obra, los títulos para la escena se sucedieron uno tras otro, destacando entre ellos la ópera bufa Lo frate ‘nnamorato (1732), las óperas serias Il prigionier superbo (1733), Adriano in Siria (1734) y L’Olimpiade (1735), y, sobre todo, el intermezzo cómico La serva padrona (1733). La representación póstuma en París (1752) de esta última partitura provocó la llamada «querelle des bouffons» entre los partidarios de la tradición operística francesa y los de la italiana, encabezados por Rousseau. De la producción de Pergolesi cabe citar así mismo un emocionante Stabat mater, su postrera obra.

Biografías y vidas

Livietta e Tracollo, intermezzo buffo (1734). Aria, Sarebbe bella questa.

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L'Olimpiade, dramma per musica en tres actos (1735). Aria del acto primero, Talor guerriero invitto. Aria del acto primero, Mentre dormi Amor fomenti.

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John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) Sousa was born in Washington, D.C. Both his parents were immigrants: his father, John Antonio, a trombonist in the US Marine Band, was born in Spain of Portuguese parents; his mother, Marie Elisabeth Trinkaus, was born in Bavaria. The family name was Sousa, despite stories that it was originally ‘So’, to which ‘USA’ was appended. John Philip, the third of ten children, was first educated at home because of poor health, and then attended local schools. In the evenings he attended the Esputa Conservatory of Music, where he studied singing, the violin, piano, flute and several brass instruments. At the age of 11 he organized an adult quadrille orchestra. He was about to run off with a circus band when his father had him enlisted as an apprentice musician in the US Marine Band at the age of 13. During the early Marine Band years Sousa performed professionally as a civilian violinist with several Washington theatre orchestras and probably also taught at the Esputa Conservatory. Meanwhile, he tried his hand at composition. He studied with George Felix Benkert, a Washington composer and conductor, and played the violin in Benkert's chamber orchestra.

After leaving the Marine Band at the age of 20 Sousa continued working as a violinist and conductor at Washington theatres, and also performed with a string quartet in informal concerts at the home of William Hunter, Assistant Secretary of State. In 1875 he became conductor for Milton Nobles's travelling theatre troupe, composing incidental music for the play The Phoenix (Bohemians and Detectives). He returned to Washington and soon went on the road again as conductor of Matt Morgan's Living Pictures, a vaudeville show. In 1876 he moved to Philadelphia for the American centenary celebration, playing first violin in the International Exhibition Orchestra. While Offenbach was the orchestra's guest conductor, Sousa composed The International Congress for him. After the centenary, he performed, arranged and composed for several Philadelphia theatres and also corrected proofs for one of his publishers, W.F. Shaw. Among his works at that time were orchestrations of several Gilbert and Sullivan operettas. He composed two versions of an operetta, Katherine, but neither was produced. HMS Pinafore was then the rage in America, and Sousa was chosen to conduct the Philadelphia Church Choir Company's production. He made his own orchestration, which was praised by Gilbert and Sullivan. In 1879 he married a young understudy from the company, Jane van Middlesworth Bellis.

After Pinafore Sousa arranged and conducted a variety show, Our Flirtations, which toured after a run in Philadelphia. His accomplishments impressed the Marine Corps officials, and he was appointed the 14th conductor of the US Marine Band in 1880. During the next 12 years he transformed the band into the finest military band in America. He composed new marches and transcribed classical works to augment the band's limited repertory. His first published operetta, The Smugglers, appeared in 1882, followed by the more successful Désirée in 1883. Sousa also helped to form the Washington Operatic Association and conducted numerous oratorios. His early marches attracted limited attention, but The Gladiator (1886) was widely played and eventually sold over a million copies. As his national and international popularity increased, his publisher, Harry Coleman, made a fortune from sheet music sales of his marches, meanwhile paying Sousa only $25 to $35 for each new march.

During his last two seasons with the Marine Band, two national tours were made under the management of David Blakely, who persuaded Sousa to leave military service and form his own civilian band. The new band, known as Sousa's Band, toured the North American continent each year from 1892 and made four European tours (1900, 1901, 1903, 1905) and one world tour (1910–11). During this period, Sousa had reached his peak as an operetta composer, and El capitan (1895) was particularly successful. The only interruption in the band's concert schedule came during World War I, when Sousa volunteered to serve in the US Navy, organizing fleet bands at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center. World War I marches which have maintained their popularity include Sabre and Spurs, US Field Artillery and Solid Men to the Front.

After the war the Sousa Band tours began again and continued until the Great Depression of 1929, when the number of engagements decreased. The last concerts were held at Atlantic City’s Steel Pier in September 1931. Meanwhile the band had begun to give radio concerts, which continued until Sousa's death. During the last decade of his life he was regarded as an American institution. He became increasingly interested in school music, adjudicated at band contests and frequently conducted massed bands. Sousa died of a heart attack after rehearsing the Ringgold Band of Reading, Pennsylvania. Fittingly, the last selection he conducted was The Stars and Stripes Forever.

Sousa has been widely commemorated, both in Washington (the Sousa Bridge, the Sousa Stage at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Sousa Hall in the Marine Barracks) and further afield. Extensive Sousa archives are on deposit at the Library of Congress, the US Marine Band and the University of Illinois. Perhaps the most touching of all the tributes to him came from former members of Sousa's Band, who formed the Sousa Band Fraternal Society 12 years after his death. Each year, on his birthday, members travelled to New York and held dinners. Chapters eventually were formed in other cities, and a newsletter was issued. It was a ‘last man's’ organization, never to be reinstated.

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El Capitan, opereta en tres actos (1895). Fragmento.

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Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg (1760-1802) He was born in Sachsenflur, Lauda-Königshofen. Zumsteeg championed the operas of Mozart in Stuttgart, staging the first performances there of Die Zauberflöte, Don Giovanni, and Cosi fan tutte. He also was a prolific composer of lieder and ballads. His ballads had a great influence on the young Franz Schubert, who imitated a number of Zumsteeg's as studies (some even in exactly the same keys) while he was a teenager. Zumsteeg's received his early education at the Carlschule in Stuttgart. There Zumsteeg became intimate friends with Friedrich Schiller. A setting for Schiller's drama, Die Räuber, 1782, is an example of the type of close collaboration that Zumsteeg undertook with prominent poets.

Perhaps the most well-known of Zumsteeg's compositions are the seven volumes of Kleine Lieder und Balladen published by Breitkopf & Härtel between 1800 and 1805. These were highly popular in Germany, remaining well-known until the 1830s. In 1783, Zumsteeg married Luise Andreae with whom he had seven children. During most of his career, Zumsteeg was closely connected to the Swabian court, and in 1791 he was appointed court director of music to fill the vacancy left by C. F. D. Schubart's death. In this capacity, Zumsteeg championed the works of German composers, countering the dominant Italian influence at the court. The last important post he held before his death in 1802 was that of court Konzertmeister.

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Die Geisterinsel (1798), ópera en tres actos. Fragmento del acto primero.

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André Laporte (*1931) He was born in Oplinter, near Tienen in Flemish Brabant. He studied music with Edgard de Laet, Flor Peeters, and Marinus De Jong at the Lemmens Institute in Mechelen, and musicology and philosophy at the Catholic University of Leuven from 1953 to 1957. From 1960 to 1964 he participated annually in the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik in Darmstadt, where he came into contact with Pierre Boulez, Bruno Maderna, Luciano Berio, György Ligeti, and Mauricio Kagel, amongst others. In addition, he attended the Second and Third Cologne Courses for New Music organized by Karlheinz Stockhausen, in 1964–1965 and 1965–1966 where, in addition to Stockhausen, he had the opportunity of meeting the composers Henri Pousseur and Luciano Berio, as well as the conductor Michael Gielen. Starting in 1953, Laporte taught music at a secondary school in Brussels. In 1963 he helped to establish the SPECTRA work group at the Institute for Psycho-Acoustic and Electronic Music (IPEM). In 1972, together with Herman Sabbe, he founded the Belgian section of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), and has been its chairperson ever since. Beginning in 1968 he taught new-music techniques at the Koninklijk Conservatorium (Brussels), later being appointed to teach music analysis, theory of musical form, harmony and counterpoint. In 1988 he was appointed Professor of Composition there, and simultaneously became teacher of composition at the Muziekkapel Koningin Elisabeth in Waterloo. From 1979 to 1989 he worked at Belgian Radio and Television (BRT, now VRT), first as a music producer, then as a program coordinator, becoming in 1989 director of production for the BRT Philharmonic Orchestra, and from 1993 until 1996, director of ensembles.

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Das Schloss, ópera en tres actos (1981–1985). Fragmento.

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Giuseppe Maria Orlandini (1676-1760) He was born in Florence, His early years appear to have been spent in Florence; oratorio librettos of 1711 and 1712 claim for him the title of maestro di cappella of Prince Giovanni Gastone of Tuscany. In 1719 he was made a member of the Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna. His name figures on the title-page of Benedetto Marcello’s Il teatro alla moda (c1720), so it must have been well known to Venetian opera audiences of that time. Between 1717 and 1731 he resided principally in Bologna. When Giovanni Gastone succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1723, Orlandini continued to style himself maestro di cappella to that sovereign, although he was not confirmed in this position until April 1732. In the same month he was named maestro di cappella of Florence Cathedral. Since all his serious operas after this date were first performed in Florence, it may be assumed that Orlandini remained in his native city after that year. During the 1730s he served as resident composer at the Florentine Teatro della Pergola, functioning as impresario during the 1722 and 1751 seasons. From 1734 to 1757 he carried out, in addition, the duties of maestro at S Michele Berteldi in Florence.

The large number and wide spread of performances of his operas confirm the opinions of Burney, La Borde, Martini and Quadrio that Orlandini was highly celebrated as a composer of dramatic music. He was best known for his comic intermezzos, in which genre his importance almost certainly outweighs that of Pergolesi. Indeed, Orlandini’s Bacocco e Serpilla (under various titles and with added music by various composers) appears to have been the most frequently performed piece of musical drama in the entire 18th century. His fashionable and forward-looking operatic style can be seen as early as Antigona (1718), in which one finds light accompaniments, often with drum basses, simple, slow-moving harmony, frequent use of regular phrasing in two-bar units and reverse-dotted rhythm. Bacocco e Serpilla uses short, simple arias, with syllabic setting, wide leaps, repeated notes, lively recurring rhythms, static harmony and rudimentary accompaniments, all of which became standard in that genre during the following decades.

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Il marito giocatore e la moglie bacchettona, intermezzi per musica (1715?). Duetto, Questo è quell'uomo.

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Daniel Alomía Robles (1871-1942) Nació en la Provincia de Huamalíes, Dpto. de Huánuco, Perú. Siendo niño integró el coro de la catedral de su ciudad natal. Al cumplir 13 años, su madre, doña Micaela Robles, dama huanuqueña de ancestros andinos, lo envía a Lima para alentar su talento artístico en el campo de la pintura y las artes manuales. En 1887, en plena adolescencia, conoció al maestro Manuel de la Cruz Panizo, negro liberto, compositor de música religiosa en varias iglesias y monasterios de Lima, quien lo instruyó en el solfeo y en el canto coral. Recordando a Panizo, Alomía Robles decía: “Era un negro chivillo, qué elegante y qué fino. Tenía una nariz fina y una boca pequeña y era de ébano. Pocos hombres he visto tan distinguidos como éste.- Aquel negro era un hombre extraordinario de quien no sé por qué no se ha guardado memoria. Era un liberto este negro, era un gran músico, y era un alma extraordinariamente generosa. Cuando llegó la hora de la manumisión – bajo el gobierno de Ramón Castilla, 1854 -, su alma era ya enteramente libre. Al hablar de él, mi recuerdo no es sino pura gratitud.- Como habíamos acordado, Panizo me enseñaba solfeo, en las noches, y yo iba a cantar en las misas. Él había acaparado todas las actividades musicales sagradas. Para poderlas atender, Panizo contaba con masas orquestales bastante bien dirigidas. Y si nos llena de asombro que un esclavo hubiese podido tener tal temperamento, no es extraño que un negro hubiese sido tan exquisito músico. No sé cómo ha podido olvidarse Lima de una figura tan interesante y tan limeña. Los chilenos lo encontraron tan bueno que se lo llevaron a Chile, pero Panizo prefirió regresar a Lima”.

Poco tiempo después, Panizo contactó al joven Alomía con el maestro Claudio Rebagliati, compositor italiano radicado en el Perú, para los estudios de piano, armonía y composición. Viajero infatigable desde los 15 años, recorrió el Perú internándose por los más abruptos lugares de su serranía, recogiendo los cantares y música que se transmitían de generación en generación, captando melodías, tradicionales y leyendas de las épocas incaica y colonial, coleccionando instrumentos musicales y cerámicos de las antiguas culturas peruanas. Su amistad con el Padre franciscano español Gabriel Sala del Monasterio de los Padres Descalzos de San Luis de Shuaron fue determinante para sus orientaciones musicológicas, en la misma medida en que lo fue su amistad con Felipe Pedrell en la Argentina. En febrero de 1897 contrajo matrimonio con la dama pianista cubana Sebastiana Godoy, hija de banqueros y hermana del poeta simbolista Armando Godoy radicado en París. De esta unión nacieron diez hijos. A los dos años de su muerte acaecida en Nueva York, en 1922, casó Alomía Robles con doña Carmela Godoy, hermana de la difunta, con la que tuvo dos descendientes. Sus numerosos viajes lo llevaron a traspasar las fronteras de su patria en varias oportunidades, visitando Bolivia, Argentina, Ecuador, Panamá y Estados Unidos, en donde radicó en la ciudad de Nueva York por espacio de 14 años, desde 1919 hasta 1933. Diversas instituciones y personalidades del mundo artístico norteamericano manifestaron profundo interés por su obra. Mr. Peter H. Goldsmith, director de la división interamericana de la “American Association for International Conciliation”; el maestro Edwin Franko Goldman, director de la famosa banda del mismo nombre; las fundaciones Carnegie y Guggenheim; las Universidades de Columbia y Yale; la Unión Panamericana en Washington y el presidente Harding de los EE. UU. Ese último propuso su ópera Illa Cori para ser estrenada en las grandes ceremonias de apertura del Canal de Panamá, en 1914. Lamentablemente, el conflicto bélico frustró el proyecto. Las casas RCA Victor y Brunswick grabaron en 24 discos sus principales obras. De ellas, la plegaria de la zarzuela El Cóndor Pasa es la que alcanzó mayor difusión y fama.

El 16 de junio de 1933 arribó al Callao, regresando a la patria tras prolongada residencia en Nueva York. Afincado en Lima, recibe homenajes, un nombramiento para un cargo público y numerosos estrenos con la orquesta Sinfónica Nacional, bajo la batuta de su entonces titular, maestro Theo Buchwald. Atacado de septicemia fallece en Chosica – Lima, a los 71 años de edad dejando inconclusas varias composiciones y el proyecto de un departamento de investigación musical con el compositor puneño Theodoro Valcárcel, artista también de estirpe y vocación andinas. Daniel Alomía Robles fue un infatigable compositor de honda raigambre andina. Sus conceptos musicales difieren radicalmente del academismo imperante en la época. Fue, sin lugar a duda, el primer compositor peruano y, tal vez, latinoamericano, que basó su trabajo de constructor musical en la investigación y estudio constante de los materiales sonoros nativos, específicamente andinos, es decir aquellos que definen como afirmara González Prada, “…el verdadero Perú… la nación formada por la muchedumbre de indios diseminados por la Cordillera”. Su trabajo creativo encontró en los géneros populares, en la canción y en las breves piezas pianísticas efectivos canales de expresión mezclados en sencillas y espontáneas estructuras formales. Obviamente, en trabajos más elaborados, obras de cámara, sinfónicas y dramáticas, no pretendió alcanzar las complejidades del convencional desarrollo o variación académicas, propias de las concepciones europeas, pero sí dejó hermosos testimonios de una auténtica búsqueda de expresión musical peruana.

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El cóndor pasa, zarzuela en dos cuadros (1913). Fragmento del cuadro primero. Fragmento del cuadro segundo.

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Per Gunnar Fredrik de Frumerie (1908-1987) He was born in Nacka, Stockholm County. He was the son of architect Gustaf de Frumerie and Maria Helleday. After studying piano in Stockholm and Vienna, he studied under Alfred Cortot in Paris. He then studied at the Royal College of Music, Stockholm 1923–1928. He taught the piano at the same college from 1945 to 1974. His compositions covered a wide area, from grand opera to piano miniatures, but he is best remembered for his piano works. His works possess a Brahmsian complexity mixed with an impressionistic elegance. One can relate his music to composers like Lars-Erik Larsson or Wilhelm Peterson-Berger. Although not noted for his theatre work, he did write an opera, Singoalla (1940). He wrote many songs, often to words by Pär Lagerkvist. The cello concerto (1984) has an interesting history. It was adapted from his second cello sonata. He then adapted it into a trombone concerto, and was his last completed work. It was specifically written for the Swedish trombone virtuoso Christian Lindberg. The Swedish mezzo-soprano Anne Sofie von Otter is related to Frumerie, as she is descended from the Frumerie family. They were both members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. The soprano Nina Stemme is a Frumerie relative, too.

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Singoalla, ópera en cuatro actos (1937–1940). Comienzo.

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Gabriel Urbain Fauré (1845-1924) Nació en Pamiers, Francia. Discípulo y más tarde amigo de Camille Saint-Saëns, Fauré se inició en la música como organista en diversas parroquias de París, antes de que le fuera concedido el cargo de maestro de coro de la Madeleine en 1877. Primer organista de esta iglesia desde 1896, ese mismo año entró en el Conservatorio de París como profesor. Excelente pedagogo, siempre abierto y respetuoso con las nuevas corrientes musicales, contó entre sus alumnos con algunos de los nombres más destacados de la música francesa de las primeras décadas del siglo XX, como Maurice Ravel, Charles Koechlin, Florent Schmitt, Nadia Boulanger o el rumano George Enesco. En 1905 alcanzó la cúspide de su carrera profesoral al ser nombrado director de dicha institución. Dimitió de este cargo en 1920 a causa de la sordera, que en los últimos años de su vida fue total.

Como compositor, Fauré destacó sobre todo en la creación de música de cámara y para piano, y de melodías para voz y piano. Sus dos Sonatas para violín y piano (1876 y 1917), sus dos Cuartetos con piano (1879 y 1886), los Nocturnos para piano solo (1875-1921) o el ciclo de melodías sobre poemas de Verlaine La bonne chanson (1894), entre otras obras, representan lo mejor de su talento en este campo. Sin embargo, no se deben olvidar algunas de sus incursiones en la escena lírica, con títulos como Prométhée (1900) y Pénélope (1913), o la música incidental compuesta para el drama de Maurice Maeterlinck Pelléas et Mélisande (1898), uno de cuyos fragmentos, Siciliana, se ha convertido con el tiempo en una de las páginas más divulgadas del compositor francés.

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Prométhée (1900) Tragédie lyrique en tres actos. Fragmento.

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Pénélope (1913) Poème lyrique en tres actos. Fragmento.

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Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini (1760-1842) Nació en Florencia. Su instrucción en la música comenzó a la edad de 6 años con su padre, clavecinista en el teatro de la Pergola de Florencia, y posteriormente con A. Felici. A la edad de 13 años, ya había escrito algunas obras religiosas. En 1778 estudia música en Bolonia y de 1778 a 1782 continua sus estudios en Milán bajo la dirección de Giuseppe Sarti. En 1779 estrenó en Alessandria su primer melodrama, Quinto Fabio, y durante los años siguientes compuso para los teatros de Toscana, Roma, Venecia y Mantua. En 1789 se estableció en París, donde compuso varias óperas con escaso éxito, este le llegó en 1791 con Lodoïska, seguido de su trabajo más conocido mundialmente, Medea (1797) y de Les deux journées (1800).

En 1805, Cherubini recibió la invitación de Viena para escribir y dirigir una ópera, Fanista, que fue recibida con entusiasmo, en particular por Haydn y Beethoven. A su regreso de Austria, deprimido por su situación financiera, dejó la música para dedicarse a la pintura y a la botánica. En 1808 volvió a escribir, principalmente música religiosa, pero también compuso la ópera Les Abéncerages (1813) y empezó la serie de sus cuartetos para cuerda. En 1815 la Sociedad Filarmónica de Londres le encargó una sinfonía, una obertura y una composición para coro y orquesta, por lo que se desplazó a la capital inglesa, esto incrementó su fama internacional. De regreso a París, la caída de Napoleón y la Restauración favorecieron su carrera, fue nombrado Superintendente de la Música del rey y director del Conservatorio (1822). Compuso una Misa en 1825 para la coronación de Carlos X. Después de 1837 se dedicó casi exclusivamente a la enseñanza y entre sus alumnos tuvo a Auber y Halévy.

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Lo sposo di tre e marito di nessuna, ópera bufa en dos actos (1783). Del acto primero, Guardate quanti giochi.

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Lodoïska, comedia heroica en tres actos (1791). Del acto primero, Voyez la belle besogne.

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Les deux journées, ópera cómica en tres actos (1800). Trio del acto primero.

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Les Abencérages, ou L'étendard de Grenade, tragédie lyrique en tres actos (1813). Final del acto primero.

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Hilding Constantin Rosenberg (1892-1985) He was born in Bosjökloster. In boyhood he studied the organ and the piano, and, after taking the organ examination, he held a post as organist for several years. He travelled in 1914 to Stockholm, where he studied the piano with Andersson and where in 1915 he entered the Royal Academy of Music. There he studied composition with Ellberg for a year and took a longer course in conducting. In 1916 he was introduced to Stenhammar, who gave him much encouragement. He made his first journey abroad in 1920, travelling to Berlin and Dresden and coming into contact with the music of Hauer and Schoenberg; he went on to Vienna and Paris, where he heard works by Stravinsky and Les Six. In the mid-1920s Rosenberg studied counterpoint with Stenhammar, took a leading part in the Swedish section of the ISCM and became known as an excellent chamber musician. In 1926 he began a long and fruitful association with the theatre director Per Lindberg. At the beginning of the 1930s he studied conducting with Scherchen, and from 1932 to 1934 he was coach and assistant conductor at the Royal Opera of Stockholm. Subsequently, as a result of an increasing volume of commissions from Swedish radio, he concentrated more and more on composition, though he continued to make guest appearances conducting his own works in Scandinavia and the USA (1948). He also exerted a great influence on Swedish musical life as a teacher, his pupils including Blomdahl, Lidholm and Bäck.

Rosenberg is held by many to be the leading figure in 20th-century Swedish music. During the 1920s he was a pioneer, together with Broman and Jeanson, in the effort to free Swedish composition from the national Romantic tradition. His very first works reveal the influence of Sibelius, but he was soon experimenting with various styles displaying diverse models; in Sweden he was regarded as an extreme radical. From early childhood he had been familiar with Lutheran chorales and Gregorian chant, and this, combined with his studies of Bach and his eager acceptance of the principles of Hindemith (whose music he had come across during the European tour of 1920), formed a foundation for his fine contrapuntal technique. He shared Schoenberg's feeling for melody, and lyricism is an integral part of his art; the First String Quartet (1920), a work that has much in common with early Schoenberg, is a good example. The creative culmination of his Bach studies came in the Piano Sonata no.4 (1927), while the 8 plastiska scener (1921) are close to Bartók, a composer then unknown to Rosenberg. Again like Bartók he took an interest in his country's folk music, composing the Suite on Swedish Folktunes for strings (1927), which combines contrapuntal, lyrical and newer elements.

In 1926 Rosenberg began working in the theatre, where he was active for more than 25 years, producing incidental music to over 40 plays. His work for the stage gave him the opportunity to experiment, and to develop his innate dramatic sense. Several incidental scores gave rise to large-scale works, including the three major operas, Marionetter, Lycksalighetens ö (‘The Isle of Felicity’) and Hus med dubbel ingång (‘The House with Two Doors’). His first opera, Resa till Amerika (‘Journey to America’, 1932), was the source of an orchestral suite which incorporates the celebrated ‘Railway Fugue’. This was also the period of an important work in Rosenberg’s development, the Second Symphony (1928–35), where there began to emerge a more individual style marked by melodic cantilenas, long pedal points and well-worked, often two-part contrapuntal sections. Bach's influence is again evident in the trio sonata texture at the beginning of the second movement and the presence of a chorale and passacaglia in the finale. The influences of Nielsen and Sibelius are still apparent, though in many respects the style is similar to that of Vaughan Williams.

During the 1930s Rosenberg made a rapprochement with the public, simplifying his style and using clearer, essentially diatonic harmonies, chromaticism becoming more a melodic embellishment. Among the many successful works which appeared during the later 1930s are the Christmas oratorio Den heliga natten (‘The Holy Night’) and its Passion counterpart Huvudskalleplats (‘Calvary’), the opera Marionetter and the ballet Orfeus i sta'n (‘Orpheus in Town’). A more lyrical, meditative mood is notable in the Third Symphony and the Fourth Quartet. In 1940 Rosenberg produced one of his greatest works, the Symphony no.4 ‘Johannes uppenbarelse’ (‘The Revelation of St John’), a vast composition in eight movements for baritone, chorus and orchestra. The piece is dramatically conceived, with sharp contrasts both in mood and style between the choral-orchestral movements (at times recalling Mahler) and the baritone recitatives, whose tonality is more advanced. The linking a cappella chorales draw on Palestrina and Schütz, but they also continue, from Stenhammar, the development of the Swedish choral tradition.

The 1940s was a decade of further large-scale choral works, reaching a climax in the massive opera-oratorio in four parts after Mann Josef och hans bröder (‘Joseph and his Brothers’), commissioned by Swedish radio. The same period saw the composition of the opera The Isle of Felicity and the Fifth Symphony, a work in a pure classical spirit, forming a pastoral equivalent and complement to the Revelation symphony. After 1949 there was a return to purely instrumental works. Rosenberg’s style became more homogeneous and his part-writing further refined, as in the excellent Fifth Quartet. Other outstanding works written at this time include the Sixth Symphony (1951) and several concertos, among them the Piano Concerto (1950) and the Violin Concerto no.2 (1951). The Sixth Quartet followed in 1954, and two years later Swedish radio commissioned a further six. These new quartets, written in less than two years, were in a radically new style; Rosenberg used a very personal 12-note technique that was not highly methodical but more a confirmation of his early linear structuring. In the Twelfth Rosenberg returned to material from the First Quartet (1920), a retrospective glance that brought about this renewed interest in atonality and 12-note technique. Two important works that display the lyrical expressionism of Rosenberg's late style are Åt jordgudinnan (‘To the Earth Goddess’, 1960) for voice and six instruments and Dagdrivaren (‘The Sluggard’, 1962) for baritone and orchestra.

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Lycksalighetens ö, ópera en cuatro actos (1943). Final del acto segundo.

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