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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 04 Sep 2015 21:47 
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Michael Vasilyevich Matyushin (1861-1934) He was born in Nizhny Novgorod. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory (1875–1880). He then worked as a violinist in the St Petersburg court orchestra (1882–1913) but also studied art during this period. His first compositional efforts, which include romances and works for violin and piano, were hampered by a tendency to lapse into a Romantic, salon-like vein. His marriage in 1908 to the poet and illustrator Yelena Guro was decisive in stimulating his interest in experimental art; he also became acquainted with Nikolay Kul'bin who promulgated the synthesis of different art forms and who was an early champion of Kandinsky and Čiurlionis. Under Kul'bin's influence, Matyushin became interested in the reproduction of sounds from nature and attempted to notate these with quarter-tone systems. He is said to have started composing quarter-tone works in 1910, and two years later he published a brief treatise about performing quarter-tone music on the violin (Manual for the Study of Quarter Tones for the Violin, 1912). This work not only influenced the first experiments of Vïshnegradsky but also stimulated two decades of microtonal research in Russia.

Between 1909 and 1911 he wrote music for Guro's plays Destitute Harlequin and Autumnal Sleep; in 1913 he collaborated with the dramatist Kruchyonïkh and the painter Malevich on the opera Victory Over the Sun, perhaps the best-known theatrical production of the futurist movement. The music, which provided a backdrop to Kruchyonïkh's scarcely intelligible dialogue and Malevich's notorious black square, may have been partly improvised. What appear to be fragments of the score appear in the published text of the opera; along with bold gestures not far removed from the naïve bombastics of Pratella, there are some passages notated in quarter tones and others involving the use of running motors. The remaining music consists of four-part recitatives and songs which, like those composed for Destitute Harlequin, are unpretentious in a manner that recalls Satie. As a painter he abandoned perspective and favoured abstraction; several of his canvases were exhibited in Europe during the 1920s. Matyushin spent his last years teaching and was involved with laboratory research on what he termed the ‘natural law of changeability in colour combinations’. This work lead to the publication of his Handbook on Colour, (Moscow and Leningrad, 1932), which concerns the relationship between the simultaneous perception of noise levels and colour intensity.

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Victory over the Sun, opera cubo-futurista (1910). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 11 Sep 2015 22:17 
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Aulis Sallinen (*1935) Sallinen was born in Salmi, in an area which was conquered by the USSR when he was nine. His first instruments were violin and piano. He would play both jazz and classical music. He was known to be extremely creative, and spent much time during his teenage years improvising. After a while, he began writing his ideas down on paper, and began to do serious composition. He attended the Sibelius Academy of Music, and studied with a number of prestigious teachers.

After graduating, Sallinen took a position as composition teacher at the Sibelius Academy, and continued composing. One of his prominent student was the Austrian born Finnish composer Herman Rechberger. In his mid 20s, he was put on the board of directors of the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra. He became chairman of the board of Finnish Composers ten years later. Though he was a known teacher and was on many boards of directors, his compositions were not particularly noted until he was made "Professor of Arts for Life" by the Finnish government, giving him money so he could focus more on composition.

After receiving that award, Sallinen devoted great amounts of time to his composing. He has revived standard forms and harmonies, but puts them together in very contemporary ways. He has received a number of commissions from some very renowned ensembles and has composed eight symphonies, including one using material from a proposed ballet on The Lord of the Rings and containing two mediaeval Finnish tunes from the Piae Cantiones. He has written six operas, and is well known as the composer of the title track of the Kronos Quartet's album Winter Was Hard.

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Kuningas lähtee Ranskaan, ópera en tres actos (1983). Fragmento.

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Kullervo, ópera en dos actos (1988). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 18 Sep 2015 22:28 
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Victor Herbert (1859–1924) He was born in Dublin and studied music in Germany Afterwards he played cello in several major German orchestras. While there he met and married the prima donna Therese Foerster, and it was her signing to sing with the Metropolitan Opera that brought Herbert to New York, where he was a cellist with the Met. Shortly thereafter, Herbert accepted the post of director of the 22nd New York National Guard Band, and he started composing for the stage. Although the Bostonians mounted his Prince Ananias in 1894 and kept it in its repertory for several seasons, Herbert received little recognition until The Wizard of the Nile (1895) gave him his first success. The Gold Bug (1896), The Serenade (1897), and The Idol's Eye (1897) followed. His first great, enduring achievement was The Fortune Teller (1898), succeeded by Cyrano de Bergerac (1899), The Singing Girl (1899), The Ameer (1899), and The Viceroy (1900). He then briefly abandoned the stage to become conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony, returning in 1903 with one of his best‐loved scores, Babes in Toyland. Also well received were It Happened in Nordland (1904), Mlle. Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906), and Naughty Marietta (1910), generally acknowledged to be his masterpiece. Herbert's later works include The Enchantress (1911), Sweethearts (1913), The Only Girl (1914), and The Princess Pat (1915). Herbert was to write just one more great score, for the Irish‐flavored Eileen (1917).

His final operettas were The Velvet Lady (1919) and the posthumously produced The Dream Girl (1924). In all he composed scores for over forty musicals, including Babette (1903), Miss Dolly Dollars (1905), Wonderland (1905), The Tattooed Man (1907), Little Nemo (1908), The Prima Donna (1908), Old Dutch (1909), The Duchess (1911), The Madcap Duchess (1913), The Débutante (1914), The Century Girl (1916), Miss (1917), Her Regiment (1917), My Golden Girl (1920), and The Girl in the Spotlight (1920). Although Herbert in his lifetime made distinctions between what he considered his musical comedies and his operettas, his richly lyrical music today is perceived as almost wholly operetta‐ish. He sometimes claimed that he was writing in an American idiom, and his contemporaries often agreed with him, but, again, today his influences are seen largely as French and Middle European. He moved from thumping marches to lilting waltzes to sentimental ballads with grace and ease. Whatever his sources, he raised the artistic level of American theatrical music and for many years did so virtually alone. Herbert was also one of the organizers of the American Society of Composers, Authors & Publishers (ASCAP), which he was moved to found after hearing his music played in restaurants without his receiving any remuneration.

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The Red Mill, opereta en dos actos (1906). Del acto primero, I'll tell you all. Del acto segundo, I should like.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 25 Sep 2015 20:45 
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Giuseppe Moneta (1754-1806). He was born in Florence. After composing a farsa for four voices (its title is unknown), he had, for a young amateur, a remarkable outburst of activity in 1779: his oratorio Il figliuol prodigo was given at S Giovannino degli Scolopi on 20 February, his comic opera I pastori delle Alpi was produced at the Teatro di borgo Ognissanti on 1 June; and he directed, from the first harpsichord, Paisiello’s Il tamburo notturno at the same theatre on 9 September. For the next 20 years he composed a succession of operas, intermezzos and melodramas, as well as sacred and instrumental music. Judging by local reviews, his music was well liked by the Florentines. He won various titles, most importantly maestro di cappella onorario e compositore of the courts of Tuscany (1791) and (later) Parma.

Comic genres made up the majority of Moneta’s dramatic compositions. He was favoured by the Tuscan court as a composer of ceremonial operas and cantatas, such as L’Urano, a cantata (celebrating Herschel’s discovery of the planet Uranus) for the wedding of Archduke Francesco in 1788. But his most original contribution was to the development in Italy of melologo (‘melodrama’ or ‘tragedia lirica’), a new dramatic form which had been cultivated in France and Germany in the 1770s. Moneta set three such dramas in the 1780s: first Il Meleagro (1785), with text by Camillo Federici, who acknowledged his desire to emulate Rousseau’s Pygmalion of 1770; and followed by two more: La vendetta di Medea (1787) and La morte di Sansone (1789).

A collection of five sinfonias has survived which displays suggestions of programmatic intent and what the descriptive style in his lost melologos may have been. His favoured position in Tuscany as composer of orchestral music is indicated by a performance in Florence in 1792 of a ‘piena sinfonia’ before the Palazzo Pitti to welcome Grand Duke Ferdinando III. He also composed six trios for flute, bassoon and continuo and two sonatas for piano and violin.

Like the musical culture of Tuscany in general in his time, Moneta’s works remained largely unknown beyond the region’s borders and the related principalities of northern Italy. The most successful of his comic operas was Il capitano Tenaglia, performed in Livorno and Brescia in Carnival 1784, and Geneva in 1786. His composing apparently ceased in 1799, probably because of the French occupation and rule (1799–1814) during which his patron, Ferdinand III, retreated to Vienna. Moneta was among the composers, educators and musicians who formed in 1801 the Collegio di Professori, devoted to raising music in Florence to its ‘greatest perfection’, promoting the study of music and increasing the number of scholars and ‘dilettantes’. In 1806 he was listed among the ‘interessati’, or financial backers, of the Teatro degl’Intrepidi. Moneta’s obituary in the Gazzetta toscana (1806, no.40) speaks of the ‘universal appreciation and praise’ accorded his music.

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Il conte Policronio, overo Le bugie hanno le gambe corte, farsa in prosa con musica (1791). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 02 Oct 2015 22:02 
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Hermann Reutter (1900-1985). He was born in Stuttgart. He studied composition with Walter Courvoisier at the Akademie der Tonkunst, Munich (from 1920) and his works were performed at the Donaueschingen and Baden-Baden Festivals. He performed as the accompanist for Sigrid Onegin (touring the USA seven times in the early 1930s) as well as for other singers, including Erb, Schwarzkopf and Fischer-Dieskau. From 1932 to 1936 he taught composition at the Württembergische Musikhochschule, Stuttgart. Reutter stabilized his career during the Third Reich by becoming a Nazi party member in April 1933. The oratorio Der grosse Kalender, heralded by B. Schott’s Söhne as ‘the new oratorio of the German people’, was first performed in Dortmund in June 1933; the Reichskulturwalter, Hans Hinkel, regarded the opera Doktor Johannes Faust (staged in Frankfurt in 1936) as the opera for which the Reich had been waiting. On 1 October 1936 Reutter was appointed director of the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. He was responsible for transforming the Conservatory into the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik (1937) and he remained its director until the end of the war. Theodor Heuss, the first President of postwar West Germany, wanted Reutter’s Hymne an Deutschland (1950), based on a poem by R.A. Schröder, to become the new national anthem, as ‘Deutschland, Deutschland über alles’ was associated with the Nazi regime. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, however, insisted on retaining the former hymn.

Reutter became professor of composition at the Musikhochschule in Stuttgart and was its director from 1956 to 1966. After his retirement he also gave master classes in lied interpretation in Munich. In his later years he enjoyed an increasingly international reputation and had his works performed abroad for the first time. Reutter’s compositions for solo instrument and orchestra are notable. Predominant, however, are his vocal compositions, which include over 200 songs based on poems, plays and other literary sources drawn from different cultures and ranging in date from antiquity to the 20th century. Stage works form the core of his oeuvre, from the one-act opera Saul (Baden-Baden, 1928) to the five-act opera Hamlet (Stuttgart, 1980). His publisher, Ludwig Strecker, who used the pseudonym Ludwig Andersen, was among his favoured librettists. Reutter’s music is generally more lyrical than Hindemith’s or Orff’s; musically he felt akin to Schubert, Brahms, Wolf and Mahler.

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Die Brücke von San Luis Rey, Szenen nach der Novelle von Thornton Wilder (1954). Fragmento.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 03 Oct 2015 22:06, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 03 Oct 2015 13:31 
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Die Brücke von San Luis Ray, Szenen nach der Novelle von Thornton Wilder (1954). Fragmento.

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Así que al pobre Luis IX de Francia lo han mutado de monarca a fenómeno meteorológico :shock:

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Tienes razón. Error en la portada.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 09 Oct 2015 21:57 
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Kamran N. İnce (*1960) Ince was born in Glendive, Montana, and at the age of six moved with his family to Turkey. He entered the Ankara State Conservatory at the age of ten, in 1971, where he began studying cello and piano, and took composition lessons with İlhan Baran. In 1977 Ince entered the İzmir University where he studied composition with Muammer Sun, but returned to the United States in 1978. He enrolled at the Oberlin College in Ohio in 1980, earning a Bachelor of Music degree in 1982, and went on to complete his master’s and doctoral degrees from the Eastman School of Music in 1984 and 1987. His teachers there included David Burge (piano), Joseph Schwantner, Christopher Rouse, Samuel Adler and Barbara Kolb (composition).

Ince won a Prix de Rome and a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1987, and the Lili Boulanger Memorial Prize in 1988. In 1990, he moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan to become a visiting professor at the University of Michigan, and in 1992 joined the faculty of the University of Memphis, where he teaches composition, co-directs the University of Memphis Imagine New Music Festival. In addition, Kamran İnce founded the Center for Advanced research in Music at Istanbul Technical University, which he has directed since 1999.

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Judgment of Midas, ópera en dos actos (2013). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 16 Oct 2015 20:19 
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Imre Kálmán Koppstein (1882-1953) He was born Imre Koppstein in Siófok, then in Austria-Hungary, on the southern shore of Lake Balaton, in a Jewish family. Kálmán initially intended to become a concert pianist, but because of early-onset arthritis, he focused on composition instead. He studied music theory and composition at the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music (then the Budapest Academy of Music), where he was a fellow student of Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály under Hans Kössler. His early symphonic poems Saturnalia and Endre es Johanna were well-received, although he failed to achieve publication. He also composed piano music and wrote many songs: a song cycle on poems by Ludwig Jacobowski and a song collection published under the title Dalai. However, the popularity of his humorous cabaret songs led him towards the composition of operettas. His first great success was Tatárjárás – Ein Herbstmanöver in German, meaning Autumn maneuver, although the English title is The Gay Hussars, which was first staged at the Lustspieltheater in Budapest, on 22 February 1908. Thereafter he moved to Vienna where he achieved worldwide fame through his operettas Der Zigeunerprimas, Die Csárdásfürstin, Gräfin Mariza, and Die Zirkusprinzessin.

Kálmán and Franz Lehár were the leading composers of what has been called the "Silver Age" of Viennese operetta during the first quarter of the 20th century. He became well known for his fusion of Viennese waltz with Hungarian csárdás. Even so, polyphonically and melodically, Kálmán was a devoted follower of Giacomo Puccini, while in his orchestration methods he employed principles characteristic of Tchaikovsky's music. Despite his Jewish origins he was one of Adolf Hitler's favorite composers. After the Anschluss, he rejected Hitler's offer to become an 'honorary Aryan' and was forced to move first to Paris, then to the United States, settling in California in 1940. Following his emigration, performances of his works were prohibited in Nazi Germany. He emigrated back to Vienna from New York in 1949 before moving in 1951 to Paris, where he died.

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Der Zigeunerprimas, opereta en tres actos (1912). Cuarteto del acto segundo, Vive le roi.

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Maurice Ohana (1913-1992) Nació en Casablanca, Marruecos. Inició su formación musical en Barcelona (1927-1931) y posteriormente se trasladó a París, donde trabajó el piano con Lazare Lévy, y el contrapunto y la armonía con Daniel Lesur. Su madre le introdujo en el "cante jondo" español. En 1944 se mudó a Roma, y allí estudió con el compositor Alfredo Casella. Fue en ese período cuando Ohana compuso sus primeras obras, como los Tres Caprichos para piano (1944-1948) y Sonatina monódica (1945). En 1946 regresó a París y participó en la creación del grupo Zodiaque, que defendía la libertad del lenguaje frente a lo que ellos llamaban "tiranías artísticas". En este contexto de espíritu de independencia creó una de sus obras más destacadas, Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías (1950), claramente influida por Manuel de Falla y por el "cante jondo" español.

El autor elaboró un lenguaje personal, marcado por un rechazo a todo intelectualismo y una fidelidad a la tradición española y a los ritmos africanos, que se expresa particularmente en Cantigas (1953-1954) y en Estudios coreográficos (1955), para percusión. Ohana nunca adoptó el método serial, por considerarlo excesivamente intelectual. La tumba de Claude Debussy, de 1962 (orquesta con soprano, cítara y piano) acoge los tercios de tono confiados a una cítara especialmente afinada.

Cifras, de 1965, es un amplio fresco en seis partes, que estuvo fuertemente influido por el clima sonoro posweberiano, así como también Synaxis (1965-1966), que merece una mención especial, no sólo porque esta pieza para dos pianos, percusión y orquesta vio cómo desaparecía la noción tonal-modal, sino sobre todo porque con ella manifestó un sentimiento muy original de la forma. La idea de la simetría no desempeñó ningún papel destacado sobre los elementos temáticos, pero sí sobre los aspectos evidentes del material sonoro: tesitura (sobreagudos, medianos, graves), aspectos determinados por el tempo y el carácter rítmico. Los timbres, las densidades y las agrupaciones armónicas constituyeron los modelos necesarios para la variación en el interior de estos aspectos primordiales.

Con Gritos (1968), para doce voces "a capella", estableció una nueva etapa de su actividad creativa. Esta partitura evoca, en su parte final, el recuerdo doloroso de los campos de la muerte en un estilo que no es superficialmente realista, tal y como había sucedido con otros compositores, sino funcionalmente musical. En 1973 compuso los 24 preludios, para piano, como homenaje a Chopin. A esta obra le siguieron otras como Diván del Tamarit, de 1976, para violonchelo y orquesta, inspirado por el poeta Federico García Lorca; Lys de madrigaux (1976) y Misa, de 1977, para soprano, mezzo-soprano y coro, que busca una reconciliación con la liturgia de los primeros tiempos cristianos.

A lo largo de su evolución musical se hacen patentes en su estilo ciertas constantes como una estructura reiterativa de las melodías, cierta inclinación hacia la modalidad y una amplia utilización de la percusión. La música de Maurice Ohana, de gran relieve sonoro, estuvo inspirada en la tradición ibérica y norteafricana, a la vez que fue combinada con ciertos elementos contemporáneos. Todo ello contribuyó a que fuera una música de una extraordinaria originalidad y profundidad.

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Syllabaire pour Phèdre, ópera de cámara (1966-1967). Comienzo.

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Vincenzo Maria Righini (1756-1812) Righini was born in Bologna and studied singing and composition with Padre Martini in his home town. Initially he performed as a singer in Florence (1769) and Rome (1770), however, according to Fétis he made his debut as a tenor in Parma in 1775. His opera buffa La vedova scaltra, considered his first contribution to musical theatre, was performed in 1774 at the Prague theatre "V kotcích". From 1774 to 1777 Righini worked in Prague, as a member of the theatre ensemble of Giuseppe Bustelli. He composed and staged operas to the libretti of N. Porta. At the end of 1777 he moved to Vienna, where he was engaged as a music teacher and composer. His comic operas were often performed in the Burgtheater. In 1787 he replaced Antonio Salieri as the court Kapellmeister for a brief period, Salieri stayed in Paris in that time. In 1787 he also moved to Mainz, where he became a court kapellmeister of the Electoral orchestra for the elector Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal. In March, 1793, he was appointed the Royal Prussian court Kapellmeister and he led the operation of theatres in Berlin and Potsdam. He also composed grand operas for local theatres, often to the libretti of Antonio De' Filistri. He died in Bologna.

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Il convitato di pietra osia Il dissoluto, ópera en dos actos (1777). Del acto primero, Come in un nobil petto. Del acto segundo, Fra nere furie orribili.

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Paul Frederic Bowles (1910-1999) Bowles was born in Jamaica, Queens, New York City as the only child of Rena (née Winnewisser) and Claude Dietz Bowles, a dentist. As a young man he studied with Copland in New York, Berlin and Paris. In 1931 they travelled to Morocco, where he completed his first chamber and solo piano works. He continued his studies with Nadia Boulanger, Roger Sessions, Virgil Thomson and Israel Citkowitz. Further travel to Guatemala, Mexico, Ceylon, southern India and the Sahara enabled him to explore indigenous musical styles which were to influence his own compositions. In 1937 he met the writer Jane Auer, whom he married the following year; together they travelled to Mexico, where he visited Silvestre Revueltas, whose compositional style had a considerable influence on his own.

Upon his return to New York, Bowles joined the musical milieu of Henry Brant, David Diamond, Citkowitz and other members of the League of Composers. Between 1936 and 1963 he wrote several ballet scores for the American Ballet Caravan and incidental theatre music for Orson Welles, John Houseman, William Saroyan and primarily Tennessee Williams. He also composed under the aegis of the Work Projects Administration and the Federal Theatre Project. In 1943, Leonard Bernstein conducted the première of the zarzuela The Wind Remains, choreographed and danced by Merce Cunningham, at the New York Museum of Modern Art. Several Latin-inspired orchestral works followed. Under the guidance of Virgil Thomson, Bowles began writing music criticism for the New York Herald Tribune (from 1942), covering jazz and folk, as well as art music; he also contributed articles on these topics to Modern Music.

Increasingly dissatisfied with his role as a composer of Gebrauchsmusik, Bowles left New York for Tangier in 1947. There he completed his first novel, The Sheltering Sky (London, 1949), the success of which encouraged him to become more active as a writer and translator. Despite his decision to leave the world of music and devote himself to prose, he composed one additional opera, Yerma (1948–1955) for torch-singer Libby Holman, and continued to write songs throughout his life. His honours included a Guggenheim Fellowship (1941) and a Rockefeller grant (1959), which enabled him to pursue ethnomusicological research and record traditional music in Morocco. His collection now resides in the Archive for Folk culture at the Library of Congress.

Bowles's compositional style is witty, aphoristic and tuneful. He wrote almost exclusively in short forms that evoke, particularly in the solo piano works, American jazz and folk elements, Latin American dance rhythms and Spanish harmonies. His operas are constructed as series of separate songs, each of which is unfailingly idiomatic. His orchestral music, which tends to be at once concise and kaleidoscopic, employing collage-like juxtapositions, displays little thematic development. Despite his fame as a writer, Bowles always thought of himself primarily as a composer. Even though many of his compositions remained unpublished at the time of his death, his music enjoyed a renaissance during the final decade of his life, inspiring numerous recordings and performances.

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The Wind Remains, zarzuela (1941–1943). Fragmento.

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Florian Leopold Gassmann (1729-1774) He was born in Brüx, Bohemia, and was most likely trained by Johann Woborschil, the local chorus master. His father was a goldsmith who may well have opposed his son's choice of a musical career. From 1757 until 1762, he wrote an opera every year for the carnival season in Venice, and was also appointed choirmaster in the girls’ conservatory in Venice in 1757. Many of the librettos he set were by the renowned Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni. In 1763 he was called to Vienna as court ballet composer, and was held in great affection by Emperor Joseph II. In 1764 he was appointed chamber composer to the Emperor, and in 1772 court conductor.

In 1766 Gassmann met up-and-coming young Antonio Salieri in Venice, invited him return with him to Vienna with him and taught him composition using Johann Joseph Fux’s textbook Gradus ad Parnassum. Salieri remained in Vienna, and succeeded Gassmann as chamber composer to the Emperor on the latter's death in 1774. Another Italian composer, Giuseppe Bonno, succeeded Gassmann as court conductor. In 1771, he founded the Tonkünstler-Societät (Society of Musical Artists), which was the first group in Vienna to give concerts for the general public, and for the benefit of its members' widows and orphans. He wrote his oratorio La Betulia liberata for that purpose.

In 1774, he died in Vienna from long-term consequences of a carriage accident sustained on his final visit to Italy. Gassmann's two daughters, Anna Fux and Therese Rosenbaum, were both famous singers trained by Salieri; the younger, Therese, made a particular name for herself as a Mozart interpreter. Charles Burney, in one of his published accounts of his many European tours surveying the musical scene, recalls, on a visit to Joseph II and his court, meeting Gassmann and finding him very forthcoming. Among the manuscripts Gassmann showed him, he reserved most of his praise for his chamber works. Burney was either not exposed to, or said nothing about, Gassmann's orchestral music. Johann Baptist Vanhal is described by author Daniel Heartz as Gassmann's "protégé".

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Die junge Gräfin, dramma giocoso en tres actos (1770). Aria del acto primero, Dein Söhnchen. Terzetto del acto segundo, Aufgeschaut!.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Petr Kotik (surname originally Kotík) (*1942) He was born in in Prague. Kotik was educated in Europe (Prague Conservatory, graduated 1961; Vienna Music Academy, graduated 1966; AMU Prague, graduated 1969). From 1960 to 1963, Kotik studied composition privately with Jan Rychlík in Prague, and from 1963 to 1966 at the Music Academy in Vienna with Karl Schieske, Hans Jelinek, and Friedrich Cerha. In Prague, he founded and directed Musica Viva Pragensis (1961–1964) and the QUAX Ensemble (1966–1969). He came to the United States in 1969 at the invitation of Lukas Foss and Lejaren Hiller to join the Center for Creative and Performing Arts at the University at Buffalo. Since 1983, Kotik has been living in New York City. Kotik is the founder and Artistic Director of the S.E.M. Ensemble, based in New York City, which presents both chamber and orchestra concerts. Kotik has received numerous commissions and composition grants, from the National Endowment for the Arts. Kotik received a 1996 Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists Award. He is also known for his realization of the complete musical works of Marcel Duchamp.

With the S.E.M. Ensemble (which he founded in 1970), Kotik has for many years actively promoted the work of other (mostly American) composers sharing a stylistic affinity with his own work, giving frequent performances as conductor and performer with the group as well as its larger version, the Orchestra of the S.E.M. Ensemble. Kotik's music is composed in the minimal vein, with works often being of long duration and featuring slow tempi and quiet dynamics. Though his works feature innumerable gradual, slight changes, giving them a seemingly static quality, his harmonies, however, are more complex than those employed by many other American minimal composers, and his musical process is not as apparent to the listener as, for example, in the works of Steve Reich or Philip Glass. Further, Kotik does not draw as heavily on jazz or rock in his works as do many of his American colleagues (though, like Steve Reich, he is quite interested in Medieval music and often integrates Medieval compositional techniques into his works). These qualities set Kotik's music apart from American minimal trends, giving his music a decidedly European character more similar in outlook to, for example, that of Hungarian minimalists such as Zoltán Jeney, László Sáry, or László Vidovszky.

As a performer, Kotik has been an active chamber musician throughout much of his life. Until 1992, Kotik did not have the slightest interest in orchestra. That changed in 1992, when he conducted Atlas Eclipticalis by John Cage with the 86-piece Orchestra of the S.E.M. Ensemble in Tribute to John Cage at Carnegie Hall, with David Tudor as the soloist. Since then, Kotik has been organizing large-scale events, expanding the S.E.M. Ensemble into The Orchestra of the S.E.M. Ensemble, and encouraging and commissioning other composers to write for orchestra. In 1999, after conducting Gruppen by Karlheinz Stockhausen, Kotik initiated a project of compositions for 3 orchestras and commissioned the creation of new 3-orchestra works by Alvin Lucier, Christian Wolff, Martin Smolka, Phill Niblock and Olga Neuwirth. In 2001, Kotik founded the biennial Ostrava Days, an Institute and Festival of New Music in Ostrava, Czech Republic. This three-week program, one of the largest in existence, focuses on works for orchestra, with two resident orchestras and number of resident composers, chamber music groups and soloists.

Although Kotik entered the conservatory at the age of 14, he only began composing in his late teens. This was due to his lack of interest in classical harmony, a tendency shared with other composers such as Christian Wolff and John Cage. As a composer, Kotik is essentially self-taught, in spite of his education in Western composition fundamentals in Prague and Vienna. His technique has very little to do with commonly used compositional methods. Kotik's compositional system can be compared to a game in which the use of controlled chance is balanced by conscious decision-making. The two alternate, one influencing the other. In this way Kotik triggers unpredictable processes while the work progresses in the envisioned direction. In recent years, Kotik has relied increasingly on intuitive gestures. The strategies and limitations Kotik imposes on chance, along with intuitive decisions, are at the root of his compositional process.

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Many Many Women, ópera (1976–1978). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Mieczyslaw Weinberg (1919-1996) He was born in Warsaw to a Jewish family. His father, Shmil Weinberg, a well-known conductor and composer of the Yiddish theater, moved to Warsaw from Kishinev in 1916 and worked as a violinist and conductor for the Yiddish theatre Scala in Warsaw, where the future composer joined him as pianist at the age of 10 and later as a musical director of several performances. His mother, Sonia Wajnberg (née Karl, 1888–1943), was an actress in several Yiddish theater companies in Warsaw and Lodz. The family had already been the victim of anti-semitic violence in Bessarabia— some members of his family were killed during the Kishinev pogrom. One of the composer's cousins (a son of his father's sister Khaya Vaynberg) - Isay Abramovich Mishne - was the secretary of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Baku Soviet commune and was executed in 1918 along with the other 26 Baku Commissars.

Weinberg entered the Warsaw Conservatory, studying piano, at the age of twelve, and graduated in 1939. Two works (his first string quartet and a berceuse for piano) were composed before he fled to the Soviet Union at the outbreak of war. His parents and younger sister Esther remained behind, were interned at the Lodz ghetto and perished in the Trawniki concentration camp. He settled in Minsk, where he studied composition for the first time at the Conservatory there. At the outbreak of the World War II on the Soviet territory, Weinberg was evacuated to Tashkent (Central Asia), where he wrote works for the opera, as well as met and married Solomon Mikhoels' daughter Natalia Vovsi. There he also met Dmitri Shostakovich who was impressed by his talent and became his close friend. Meeting Shostakovich had a profound effect on the younger man, who said later that, "It was as if I had been born anew". In 1943, he moved to Moscow at Shostakovich's urging.

Weinberg's works were not banned during the Zhdanovshchina of 1948, but he was almost entirely ignored by the Soviet musical establishment; for a time he could make a living only by composing for the theatre and circus. On 13 January 1948 Weinberg's father-in-law Mikhoels was assassinated in Minsk on Stalin's orders; shortly after Mikhoels's murder, Soviet agents began following Weinberg. In February 1953, he was arrested on charges of "Jewish bourgeois nationalism" in relation to the murder of his father-in-law as a part of the so-called "Doctors' plot": Shostakovich wrote to Lavrenti Beria to intercede on Weinberg's behalf, as well as agreeing to look after Weinberg's daughter if his wife wеre also arrested. In the event, he was saved by Stalin's death the following month, and he was officially rehabilitated shortly afterwards.

Thereafter Weinberg continued to live in Moscow, composing and performing as a pianist. He and Shostakovich lived near to one another, sharing ideas on a daily basis. Besides the admiration which Shostakovich frequently expressed for Weinberg's works, they were taken up by some of Russia's foremost performers and conductors, including Emil Gilels, Leonid Kogan, Kirill Kondrashin, Mstislav Rostropovich, Kurt Sanderling, and Thomas Sanderling. Towards the end of his life, Weinberg suffered from Crohn's disease and remained housebound for the last three years, although he continued to compose. He reportedly converted to Orthodox Christianity less than two months before his death in Moscow.

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The Idiot, opera en cuatro actos (1985). Fragmento del acto tercero.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 28 Nov 2015 9:58, editado 1 vez en total

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