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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 29 May 2015 22:34 
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Ennio Porrino (1910-1959) He was born in Cagliari and studied at the Accademia di Santa Cecilia in Rome. He later studied with Ottorino Respighi from 1932 to 1935. According to Alfredo Casella, he became one of Respighi's disciples, championing an Italian national music movement and openly opposing composers such as Casella, Dallapiccola, and Malipiero for their Modernist music. After Respighi's death in 1936, Porrino and Respighi's widow Elsa completed his unfinished opera Lucrezia for its posthumous premiere at La Scala in 1937. In the course of his career, Porrino taught at the conservatories of Rome, Venice, and Naples, and in 1956 became the director of the Cagliari Conservatory. That same year he married Malgari Onnis (born 1935), a painter and theatrical designer. She designed the production of Porrino's last work, the opera I Shardana, which premiered on 21 March 1959, six months before his death. The couple had one daughter, Stefania (born 1957), who became a playwright and stage director. Porrino died in Rome in 1959 at the age of 49. The Concorso Internazionale di Pianoforte Ennio Porrino was established in his memory in 1980.

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I Shardana (Gli uomini dei nuraghi), dramma musicale en tres actos (1959). Fragmento del acto primero.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 05 Jun 2015 22:52 
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Dmitri Borísovich Kabalevski (1904-1987) Kabalevsky was born in St.Petersburg. After a false start as a painter, he entered the Moscow Conservatory in 1925 where he studied piano with Alexander Goldenweiser and composition with Nikolai Myaskovsky, graduating in 1930. He soon began a lifelong career as a teacher, while at the same time throwing himself into musical politics, dividing himself between the more cosmopolitan modernists in the Association of Contemporary Music and the radical leftist Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians. When such organisations were disbanded in the early 1930s, he gravitated towards their official replacements, becoming a senior figure in the newly formed Union of Composers in 1938. From 1940 (in which year he joined the Communist Party) to 1946, he was senior editor of the magazine Sovietskaya Muzyka, a position giving him great power over the fate of other composers’ music. Narrowly escaping public criticism in the 1948 campaign against ‘formalism’, he strengthened his role as an arbiter of official taste, outspokenly favouring music based on the simplest academic models, with a strong basis in folk-song and 19th century Russian music, and with a clear feeling of political and social optimism. In the 1950s and 1960s, along with Tikhon Khrennikov, he was one of the most powerful figures in Soviet musical life.

Kabalevsky made a crucial impact on Soviet musical education. His ditties and nursery-rhymes for very small children, his prolific output of study-pieces for young pianists and other instrumentalists, his innumerable songs, cantatas and anthems for the Pioneers and other Soviet youth organisations, made him easily the most familiar composer to anyone who grew up in the USSR. His children’s piano pieces have found a wide outlet with teachers in the West too. His music for adults, including 4 symphonies, 5 operas, 8 concertos, quartets, sonatas and much else, usually aspires to the same condition as his children’s music. He favoured clarity and simplicity of form, traditional melodies and gestures, sweet moments of melancholy in the slow movements and cheerful optimism to end, often with a bracing dash of neo-classical motor rhythms. In this spirit, the overture to his first opera, Colas Breugnon (1938), has had most success outside his native land, although his Requiem (1963), dedicated ‘to those killed in the struggle against fascism’ and with texts by Robert Rozhdestvensky, looks towards darker themes. In Russia Kabalevsky is well remembered for his trio of concertos, for piano, violin and cello, ‘dedicated to Soviet youth’. These balance his children’s style with his adult one to create works capable of being performed by talented young soloists together with a ‘grown-up’ symphony orchestra. Many Soviet soloists first cut their performing teeth on these pieces.

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Colas Breugnon, ópera en tres actos (1938). Final del acto tercero.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 12 Jun 2015 21:40 
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Klaus Huber (*1924) He was born in Bern, Switzerland. Huber studied violin at the Zurich University of the Arts with Stefi Geyer and composition with Willy Burkhard. He continued his studies with Boris Blacher in Berlin. His international breakthrough came in 1959 with the world premiere of his chamber cantata Des Engels Anredung an die Seele, at that time an unorthodox composition that uses consonant intervals within a strictly serial context. One of the leading figures of his generation in Europe, he has written extensively for chamber ensembles, choirs, soloists and the orchestra as well as the theater. Huber is a socially and politically conscious composer and his music often conveys a humanistic message. Klaus Huber taught composition at the City of Basel Music Academy (1961–1972) and at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg (1973–1990). He was also appointed director of the composition seminars at the Gaudeamus Foundation in Bilthoven, Netherlands, in 1966, 1968 and 1972. Additionally, he held international visiting professorships and composition classes in (among others) Paris, London, Geneva, Milan, Lyon, Montreal, Sarajevo and Tatui (Brazil). Several students of Klaus Huber such as Brian Ferneyhough, Toshio Hosokawa, Wolfgang Rihm and Kaija Saariaho became internationally recognized composers.

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Schwarzerde, Bühnenwerk in neun Sequenzen (2001). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 19 Jun 2015 23:06 
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Jesús Guridi Bidaola (1886-1961) Nace en Vitoria en el seno de una familia de músicos. Su madre, María de Trinidad Bidaola, fue violinista, y su padre, Lorenzo Guridi, fue pianista. Tras cursar sus primeros estudios en los Escolapios y en los Padres Jesuitas de Zaragoza, se traslada a Madrid, donde recibe clases de Valentín Arin. Ya en Bilbao, participa en las actividades de la sociedad llamada El Cuartito, donde conoce a quienes serán sus mentores. Recibe clases de violín de Lope Alaña y de armonía de José Sáinz Besabe.

El día 28 de enero de 1901, con tan solo quince años, ofrece su primer concierto público en la Sociedad Filarmónica de Bilbao. A los 18 años ingresa en la Schola Cantorum de París, estudiando órgano con Abel Decaux, composición con Auguste Sérieyx y contrapunto y fuga con Vincent D'Indy. Es aquí donde conoce a Usandizaga, al que le unirá una profunda amistad. Se traslada a Bruselas, donde estudia con Joseph Jongen, y a Colonia, con Otto Neitzel, siguiendo las recomendaciones de Resurreción María de Azcue.

En junio de 1912 es nombrado director de la Sociedad Coral de Bilbao. En este mismo año muere Usandizaga. Diez años más tarde, en 1922, se casa con Julia Ispizua. El matrimonio tendrá seís hijos: María Jesús, Luis Fernando, Maria Isabel, Ignacio, Julia y Javier. En 1944 entra en el conservatorio de Madrid, siendo, años más tarde, su director. El día 7 de abril de 1961 fallece repentinamente, a la edad de 74 años, en su domicilio en la calle de Sagasta de Madrid.

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Amaya, ópera en tres actos y un epílogo (1910-1920). Fragmento.

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El caserío, zarzuela en tres actos (1926). Duo del acto segundo, Con alegría inmensa tu resolución.

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La condesa de la aguja y el dedal, zarzuela en dos actos (1950). ¿Qué es eso?.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 26 Jun 2015 22:36 
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Walter Leigh (1905-1942) He was born in Wimbledon. His first teacher was Harold Darke, with whom he worked from the age of eight until he was seventeen. He went to Christ's College, Cambridge, studying composition with Cyril Rootham and graduating in 1926. For two years thereafter, he studied composition under Paul Hindemith at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. In 1930, Leigh declined a teaching job and set about earning a living by accepting small commissions and becoming increasingly involved with the theatre. With V. C. Clinton-Baddeley he wrote a pantomime for the Festival Theatre at Cambridge, and two comic operas, the second of which, Jolly Roger, ran for six months at the Savoy Theatre in London, with a cast headed by George Robey. He composed an elaborate score for Basil Wright's documentary film The Song of Ceylon and the concert overture Agincourt, commissioned by the BBC in celebration of King George V's Silver Jubilee. The Harpsichord Concertino is one of a number of chamber works of the period: an elegant and concise work, more French than German in its spare-noted neo-classicism, the keyboard writing showing signs of Ravel's influence.

For the Cambridge production of The Frogs in 1936, Leigh produced another score precision-made for the occasion. The music for A Midsummer Night's Dream was written for open-air schools performance at Weimar in 1936; it is scored for flute, clarinet, trumpet, strings and harpsichord. Music for String Orchestra is a work written sympathetically for amateurs in four movements: Adagio - Vivo - Lento - Allegro. The only other major commission Leigh undertook before the outbreak of war was to produce the music for Farjeon's intimate revue, Nine Sharp (1938). He was a composer who thrived on limitations and who needed the right external stimulus if he was to produce the best work that it was in him to do. He was a craftsman-composer of a sort commoner in the 18th century than the 20th century. Almost all his music was written for immediate use; like Haydn, he would not have dreamed of fulfilling a commission without ascertaining the probable capabilities of his performers; he could turn to any number of different idioms according to the needs of the occasion.

An obituary in The Times credits Leigh as being "the first British composer to undertake a complete study of the many problems relating to the sound-track in the production of films", and cites the score for The Song of Ceylon as "a classic example of the creative use of music and sound in relation to the visuals on the screen." In 1941, during the Second World War, he joined the British Army and served as a trooper with the Royal Armoured Corps, 4th Queen's Own Hussars. He was killed in action near Tobruk, Libya in 1942, just before his 37th birthday, leaving a widow, Marion, and three children, Julian, Veronica and Andrew, who had been sent to Canada to escape the London Blitz.

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Jolly Roger, or The Admiral's Daughter, opera comica en tres actos (1933). Final del acto segundo.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 03 Jul 2015 22:02 
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Francesco Maria Veracini (1690-1768) Born in Florence, the son of a pharmacist and undertaker, he was taught the violin by his uncle, Antonio Veracini, with whom he often appeared in concert. Veracini wrote a concerto grosso for eight instruments which was performed in 1711 at the coronation festivities for the Emperor Charles VI. There is a legend that, when Giuseppe Tartini heard Veracini playing the violin in 1712, he was so impressed by his bowing technique, and so dissatisfied with his own skill, that he retreated the next day to Ancona "in order to study the use of the bow in more tranquility, and with more convenience than at Venice, as he had a place assigned him in the opera orchestra of that city". (Burney 1789, 3:564–65). In 1714, Veracini went to London and played instrumental pieces ("symphonies" in contemporary parlance) between the acts of operas at the Queen's Theatre. After a season at the court in Düsseldorf and once again in Venice in 1716, he wrote a set of violin/recorder sonatas dedicated to Prince Friedrich August (who in 1733 would become Augustus III of Poland and Augustus II Elector of Saxony). The Prince was in Venice recruiting musicians on behalf of his father Augustus II the Strong/Augustus I for the Saxon Court in Dresden.

At the Prince's urging, Augustus the Strong employed Veracini to play chamber music at his court, later transferring him to the official Dresden payroll as violinist in August 1717. Veracini was sent to recruit Italian singers for the Dresden opera. In 1721 Veracini wrote another set of violin sonatas dedicated to the Prince (published as his Opus 1). Unfortunately, there was animosity among the musicians at the court in Dresden. In 1722, Veracini was involved in a quarrel, staged according to one source by the composer and violinist Pisendel, which resulted in Veracini leaping out of an upper-story window. He walked with a limp for the rest of his life. Back in his native Florence in 1723, Veracini played music in a church and wrote an oratorio. During this time he earned a bad reputation and was said by Charles Burney to have been "usually qualified with the title of Capo pazzo" ["head lunatic"]. (Burney 1789, 3:568). Back in London in 1733, Veracini appeared in many concerts. There he wrote an opera, Adriano in Siria, considered too long by the music critics. In 1737, he wrote La Clemenza di Tito, on a libretto by Corri based on one by Pietro Metastasio. (The Metastasio libretto was also the basis of the one Mazzola wrote for Mozart's La Clemenza di Tito).

In 1738 Veracini wrote his third opera, Partenio, and in 1744 his last opera, Roselinda, based on Shakespeare's play As You Like It, a most unusual choice of material at that time. In that opera Veracini included the well-known Scots ballad tune The Lass of Paties Mill. It was staged in London in 1744, the same year his oratorio (described as an opera in Burney 1789, 4:451) L'errore di Salomone was staged, and its lack of success (Burney, 4:451, scorned the music as "wild, awkward, and unpleasant; manifestly produced by a man unaccustomed to write for the voice", but confessed that "This opera, to my great astonishment when I examined the Music, ran twelve nights", whereas L'errore di Salomone was given only twice) prompted Veracini to leave London a little more than a year later. After surviving a shipwreck in the English Channel, he again returned to Florence, where he was appointed maestro di capella of the churches of San Pancrazio and San Gaetano, the latter one at which his uncle had worked, focusing on church music. Though he mostly conducted in his later years, he still sometimes appeared as a violinist. He died in Florence.

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Adriano in Siria, dramma per musica en tres actos (1735). Aria del acto primero, Sprezza il furor. Aria del acto segundo, Saggio Guerriero.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 10 Jul 2015 22:25 
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Ming Tsao (*1966) He was born in Berkeley, California in 1966. Following his early musical studies, performing violin and viola with the Berkeley Youth Orchestra and the Young People’s Symphony respectively, he lived in Suzhou, China and studied the traditional guqin (Chinese zither) with the renowned guqin performer Wu Zhao-ji. He then studied traditional composition, counterpoint, harmony, orchestration and arranging at the Berklee College of Music where he received his B.M. degree (1988) in composition. In 1987, he received the Youth Concert’s Award for an original wind symphonic orchestral composition. He received his M.A. degree in ethnomusicology from Columbia University (1992) with an emphasis on traditional Chinese music and culture. During this time, he studied electronic music composition with Mario Davidovsky in the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. He then studied logic and philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley and took his second M.A. degree in mathematics at San Francisco State University (2000) with an emphasis on algebra and set theory. His graduating thesis on mathematical music theory received the Outstanding Graduate Student Achievement Award for the quality of research and is now published as Abstract Musical Intervals: Group Theory for Composition and Analysis.

He was also awarded two CIRE Fellowships for original research in mathematics at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) in the University of California, Berkeley. During this time, he attended summer master classes in music composition. He completed his Ph.D. in music composition at the University of California, San Diego (2007) where he studied principally with composer Chaya Czernowin. His qualifying topics included the analysis of post-war composition and music transcription, as well as articulating a compositional methodology with ideas influenced by film and experimental poetry. He was invited to Stanford University for a year where he studied composition privately with composer Brian Ferneyhough. Following his graduation, he was awarded a Faculty Fellowship from the University of California, San Diego where he taught composition, analysis, counterpoint and harmony. During this time, he was also artist in residence at the Headlands Center for the Arts. In 2009, he was appointed Professor of Composition at the University of Gothenburg, Academy of Music and Drama in Sweden where he currently teaches composition, analysis and music aesthetics. Ming Tsao lives in Berlin. His music has been performed in such festivals as Donaueschingen, Wittener Tage für neue Kammermusik, Wien Modern, MaerzMusik and Darmstadt Ferienkurse für neue Musik. He has written essays for the journals Musik & Ästhetik and Search Journal for New Music and Culture.

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Die Geisterinsel, ópera de cámara (2010-2011). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 17 Jul 2015 22:18 
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Zakaria Paliashvili (1871–1933) He was born in Kutaisi, Georgia. Brought up in a Catholic family in which music occupied an important place, he sang in the church choir at the age of eight and at an early stage learnt to play the organ. In 1887 he moved to Tbilisi, joining a choir founded by the folk-music enthusiast L. Agniashvili. A few years later he entered the Tbilisi Music School, where he studied the horn and started to compose; he then went on to study with Sergey Taneyev at the Moscow Conservatory (1900–1903). Returning to Tbilisi (1903), he taught at the Music School and the Georgian Grammar School, and helped to establish the Georgian Philharmonic Society (1905), under whose auspices he later founded a choir and orchestra. He also directed the society’s music school (1908–1917) and became a member of the governing body of the Association for the Staging of Operas in the Georgian Language. During an eight-year period he travelled throughout almost the whole of Georgia, notating approximately 300 traditional songs. He took an active part in the country’s musical life, and from 1919 was a professor at the Tibilisi Conservatory, at various times serving as its director (1919, 1923, 1929–1932). In 1925 Paliashvili was named ‘People’s Artist’, the first Georgian composer on whom this Soviet title was conferred. His operas were staged by the leading opera theatres of the former Soviet Union and were also performed in Europe and America. The Opera and Ballet Theatre in Tbilisi was named after him, and a monument in his honour was erected in front of the building. The Z. Paliashvili Prize of the Georgian Republic was established in 1971.

Paliashvili’s strikingly original work constitutes the first significant body of Georgian music composed in the Western art music tradition. He succeeded in creating a cogent and highly original fusion of national tradition with the styles and genres of European music. Although his musical language remained traditional, often resembling that of the 19th-century national schools, his understanding of vernacular sources and their potential for integration into the professional sphere opened up enormous possibilities for Georgian musical art. He recognized the importance of mastering European musical traditions and addressed this task rapidly and purposefully, testing his strengths in almost every vocal genre. He selected and cultivated in his music those aspects of folk and church tradition that were in harmony with the aesthetic and social needs of early 20th-century Georgia. His works often reflect an interest in mythical and historical subject-matter.

Paliashvili produced a significant corpus of chamber-vocal music but is known principally for his operas, in which he laid the foundations for a Georgian national musical language. His finest achievement in the genre was Abesalom da Eteri (1918), an exceptionally integrated conception combining folk-epic and lyric-dramatic elements and displaying the thematic, dramatic and stylistic tendencies evident elsewhere in his operatic output. Characteristic of this monumental operatic tragedy is a broad canvas of well-rounded numbers, oratorio-like choruses and a fluid beauty of melodic material reminiscent of bel canto. The chorus plays an active role in the drama, drawing together each strand of the action. Although the foundation of the music lies in rural Georgian folk traditions, Paliashvili also draws on Georgian urban songs and ancient religious melodies. Their influence is evident in the severe diatonicism, in the originality of the polyphonic texture, and in the harmony with its combination of 4ths and 5ths. His later opera Daisi, with its introspective concentration and elements of psychological drama, reveals a new direction. The story unfolds against the lively and colourful backdrop of the Khatoba festival, and the musical language is richly melodious, closely linked with everyday genres and with folksong. Particular prominence is given to solo numbers based on monodic urban song and the romance, while the various choral episodes display stylistic affinities with the Georgian folk tradition of polyphonic choral music.

Throughout his life Paliashvili tirelessly studied the works of Bach, Palestrina, Handel and the composers of the polyphonic schools. However, the fundamental source of his artistic inspiration remained old Georgian church music, to which he devoted many years of careful study. Although this was evident in works as early as his six-part Mass (1900), the most interesting example of a synthesis between the Western and Eastern Church traditions remains his Kartuli Liturgia (1911), a set of canticles for the Liturgy of St John Chrysostom.

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Abesalom da Eteri, ópera en cuatro actos (1918). Fragmento del acto cuarto.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 24 Jul 2015 22:31 
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Louis Karchin (*1951) He was born in Philadelphia. Karchin studied at the Eastman School of Music and Harvard University; his principal teachers included Samuel Adler, Joseph Schwantner, Fred Lerdahl, Earl Kim, Gunther Schuller, and Leon Kirchner. Additional study included two summers as a Leonard Bernstein Fellow in Composition at the Tanglewood Music Center. He is now Professor of Music at New York University. Over the course of a career now spanning four decades, he has amassed a portfolio of over 60 works, appeared as conductor with numerous performing ensembles, co-founded several musical organizations, including the Chamber Players of the League-ISCM, the Orchestra of the League of Composers, and the Harvard Group for New Music, and overseen the formation of a graduate program in Music Composition at New York University. His works have garnered distinguished honors, including three awards from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, a Guggenheim Fellowship, three grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, and Koussevitzky, Barlow, and Fromm commissions. The citation of the Walter N. Hinrichsen Award, presented by the American Academy, praised his Songs of John Keats, as “a striking conception, in which the sonic properties of the poetry interact with musical material in unprecedented fusion.” Karchin's chamber opera, Romulus, received a staged premiere in May 2007, at the Guggenheim Museum.

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Romulus, ópera cómica en un acto (1990, rev. 2005). Comienzo.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 31 Jul 2015 22:25 
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Gian Francesco de Majo apodado Ciccio (1732-1770) Nació en Nápoles. Inició los estudios musicales con su padre, Giuseppe de Majo, y a continuación pasó a ser alumno de Gennaro Manna y Francesco Feo. Siendo todavía un adolescente, con 13 años, prestó servicio como segundo clavicémbalo en el Teatro de la Corte; y a los 15 años, trabajaba junto a su padre, que por aquel entonces ocupaba el puesto de director de la Capilla Real, como organista supernumerario sin derecho a paga, situación que se prolongó hasta el año 1750 en que falleció el primer organista, Pietro Filippo Scarlatti, recibiendo a partir de entonces el salario de un ducado al mes. Además de su labor como organista, a partir de 1749 compuso para la Capilla Real varias obras sacras. El 17 de febrero de 1759 estrenó en Parma su primera ópera, Ricimiero, re dei goti, que ese mismo año se representó en Roma donde, según testimonia Goldoni en sus memorias, obtuvo una acogida triunfal.

Al inicio de 1760 contrajo la tuberculosis, motivo por el cual no pudo musicar el libreto de Silvio Stampiglia Il trionfo di Camilla para el Teatro de San Carlos de Nápoles. Sin embargo, en junio del mismo año, presentó el poema dramático Astrea placata; y en noviembre la ópera Cajo Fabrizio en el San Carlos. Entre 1761 y 1763 presentó sus obras en Livorno, Venecia y Turín, llegando a conocer al Padre Martini. En 1764 se traslada a Viena, pues había recibido el encargo de componer una ópera para ser representada con ocasión de la coronación de José II de Austria como Emperador, finalizando el año en Mannheim.

En 1765 regresó a Italia representando en Turín la ópera con libreto de Vittorio Amedeo Cigna-Santi, Montezuma. En 1766 regresó a Nápoles, pero por poco tiempo, pues dentro del mismo año volvió a atravesar Italia para ir nuevamente a Mannheim, regresando a los pocos meses a Nápoles tras pasar unas semanas en Venecia y Roma. En agosto de 1767, y en dura competición con Niccolo Piccinni, obtuvo el puesto de maestro de capilla de la corte napolitana en sustitución de su propio padre, Giuseppe de Majo.

Durante este último periodo napolitano, las estrecheces financieras impidieron a Majo el desplazarse a las diferentes ciudades donde se estrenaban sus óperas. Siendo maestro de capilla, Gian Francesco volvió a la vieja tarea de componer música sacra. Por encargo de la reina María Carolina de Nápoles compuso la ópera Eumene, la cual iba a ser representada el 4 de noviembre de 1770 en el Teatro de San Carlos de Nápoles, pero a causa de un empeoramiento en la salud del compositor el estreno de la obra se trasladó a enero del año siguiente. Finalmente, Majo falleció el 17 de noviembre dejando terminado únicamente el primer acto, por lo que la partitura de Eumene fue acabada por los compositores Giacomo Insanguine y Pasquale Errichelli.

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Alessandro nell'Indie, opera seria en tres actos (1756). Aria del acto segundo, Di rendermi la calma.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 07 Ago 2015 22:38 
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Igor Wakhevitch (*1948) He was born in Gassin-Saint Tropez, France. Son of the art director Georges Wakhevitch is an avant-garde French composer who released a series of studio albums in the 1970s and composed the music of the only opera imagined by the legendary genius painter Salvador Dalí: Être Dieu' ("To Be God"). Igor Wakhevitch was a contemporary of similar avant-garde electronic composers, such as Pierre Henry, who was born and based in Paris. Igor Wakhevitch himself a brilliant classical pianist was one of the first composer of his generation to introduce in his compositions various kind of electronic keyboards, moog synthesizer, synthi aks, arp synthesizer, "ondes martenot", electronic organ, etc. : some of his albums, as Logos or Hathor, Let's Start are amongst the most impressive albums of experimental music released in France in the 70's. By many all over the world he is considered as a genius. But certainly a very creative soul in a perpetual search of sounds of power and for a new kind of sacred music, cosmic oriented, Igor finding his inspiration from the mother nature and cosmic forces, telluric energies, occult sounds and sacred scriptures as well.

From the age of eight, Igor Wakhevitch learned to play piano under the tutelage of Marguerite Long the legendary french classical pianist and Lucette Descaves. Between the ages of 12 to 17, he studied at the Paris National Superior Conservatory of Music and Dance Conservatoire de Paris. During this time, he was auditioned by the symphonic orchestra conductor, the great maestro Herbert von Karajan at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées and in 1965 he was 17 only when he won the Jury's First Prize for Piano by a unanimous vote. In1967, studying at the Paris National Superior Conservatory of Music and Dance under the direction of the great french composer of the XXth century Olivier Messiaen, Igor Wakhevitch won the first prize in Musical Analysis. In 1968, he worked for the GRM in the ORTF (Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française) under the direction of Pierre Schaeffer.

In 1974, Salvador Dalí asked Igor Wakhevitch to compose the music of his opera-poem in six parts entitled Être Dieu. The album was recorded in the Studios of EMI in Boulogne, performed by various actors, speakers and singers, a string orchestra, choir, soprano soloist Eve Brenner, and a rock band which featured the actors Raymond Gérôme, Delphine Seyrig, Catherine Allegret, Alain Cuny and Didier Haudepin; and musicians Michel Ripoche on violin, Didier Batard on bass and François Auger on drums

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Être Dieu, ópera poema, audiovisual y cátaro en seis partes de Salvador Dalí sobre un libreto de Vasquez Montalban (1974). Comienzo.

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João de Sousa Carvalho (1745-1798/1800) He was born in Estremoz, Portugal. On 28 October 1753 he began music studies at the Colégio dos Santos Reis in Vila Viçosa. A royal grant enabled him to enrol on 15 January 1761 at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio in Naples, where he studied with Cotumacci. In 1766 his setting of Metastasio’s La Nitteti was performed in Rome. On returning to Portugal he joined the Irmandade de S Cecília at Lisbon on 22 November 1767. In the same year he was appointed professor of counterpoint in the Seminário da Patriarcal, where he later served as mestre (1769–1773) and as mestre de capela (1773–1798) and taught such noted musicians as António Leal Moreira, Marcos António Portugal and João José Baldi. In 1778 he succeeded David Perez as music teacher to the royal family. Upon retirement from the Seminário da Patriarcal he owned extensive properties in both the Algarve and Alentejo. Carvalho was the foremost Portuguese composer of his generation, and one of the finest in the country’s history. His numerous elaborate church works in the style of Jommelli display a thorough control of counterpoint and structure, with keen, assertive melodic writing in the fast movements. He is equally distinguished as a composer of opere serie and serenatas, of which 14 by him were performed at the royal palaces of Ajuda and Queluz.

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Testoride argonauta, dramma en dos actos (1780). Final del acto primero.

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Eino Tamberg (1930-2010) He was born in Tallinn, Estonia. Tamberg completed his studies in composition under Eugen Kapp at the Tallinn Conservatory in 1953. From 1953 to 1959 he worked in the Estonian Radio as sound engineer and as artistic consultant in the Estonian Composers’ Union from 1960 to 1969. Since 1968 he teaches composition at the Estonian Academy of Music and from 1978 until his death he was the head of the chair of composition. Tamberg has founded a school of composition. His most brilliant students have been Raimo Kangro, Peeter Vähi, Margo Kõlar, Toivo Tulev, Mari Vihmand and Mart Siimer. In 1999 he was awarded the Estonian State Cultural Award. Tamberg is a great authority in Estonian contemporary music. He has influenced it since the 1950’s being a representative of the new generation of composers then. His Concerto grosso (1956) became the international break-through both for the author himself as well as for the Estonian new music. The most important part of Tamberg’s output are symphonic works and works for the stage. He is an excellent musical dramatist. His works always fascinate with a clear concept of form and vivid imagination which sometimes leads him to surprising mixtures of styles like in the case of the opera Cyrano de Bergerac. He generally makes use of extended tonality or free atonality combining them in his own original way. High intensity of expression (achieved by melodic and harmonic means as well as by orchestration) typical for his music was strongly revealed in the ballet Joanna tentata. His tendency to combine various artistic forms in the works for the stage emerged in The Moonshine Oratorio.

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Cyrano de Bergerac, ópera romántica en tres actos y un epílogo (1974). Fragmento del acto primero.

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Agostino Steffani (1654-1728) He was born at Castelfranco Veneto. At a very early age he was admitted as a chorister at San Marco, Venice. In 1667 the beauty of his voice attracted the attention of Count Georg Ignaz von Tattenbach, by whom he was taken to Munich, where his education was completed at the expense of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, who appointed him Churfürstlicher Kammer- und Hofmusikus and granted him a liberal salary. After receiving instruction from Johann Kaspar Kerll, in whose charge he lived, he was sent in 1673 to study in Rome, where Ercole Bernabei was his master, and among other works he composed six motets, the original manuscripts of which are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge.

On his return to Munich in 1674 he published his first work, Psalmodia vespertina, a part of which was reprinted in Giovanni Battista Martini's Saggio di contrappunto in 1774. In 1675 he was appointed court organist. The date when he was ordained priest, with the title of Abbate of Lepsing, is not precisely known. His ecclesiastical status did not prevent him from turning his attention to the stage, for which, at different periods of his life, he composed work which undoubtedly exercised a potent influence upon the dramatic music of the period. Of his first opera, Marco Aurelio, written for the carnival and produced at Munich in 1681, the only copy known to exist is a manuscript score preserved in the royal library at Buckingham Palace. It was followed by Solone in 1685, by Audacia e rispetto, Prerogative d'amore and Servio Tulio in 1686, by Alarico in 1687, and by Niobe, regina di Tebe in 1688.

Notwithstanding the favor shown to him by the Elector Maximilian Emanuel, he accepted in 1688 the appointment of Kapellmeister at the court of Hanover, where he speedily improved an acquaintance dating from 1681 with Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (Celle; afterwards Elector of Hanover), winning also a pleasant footing with the Elector's daughter Sophia Charlotte (afterwards Electress of Brandenburg and Queen of Prussia), the philosopher Leibniz, the Abbate Ortensio Mauro, and many men of letters and intelligence, and where, in 1710, he showed great kindness to Handel, who was then just entering upon his glorious career. He inaugurated a long series of triumphs in Hanover by composing, for the opening of the new opera house in 1689, an opera called Henrico Leone on Henry the Lion, which was produced with extraordinary splendour and achieved an immense reputation. For the same theatre he composed La Lotta d'Ercole con Achilleo in 1689, La Superbia d'Alessandro in 1690, Orlando generoso in 1691, Le Rivali concordi in 1692, La Liberia contenta in 1693, I Trionfi del Job and I Baccanali in 1695, and Briseide in 1696. The libretto of Briseide is by Palmieri. Those of most, if not all the others are by the Abbate Mauro.

The scores are preserved at Buckingham Palace, where, in company with five volumes of songs and three of duets, they form part of the collection brought to England by the Elector of Hanover in 1714, when ascending as King George I of Great Britain. But it was not only as a musician that Steffani distinguished himself in his new home. The elevation of Ernest Augustus to the electorate in 1692 led to difficulties, for the arrangement of which it was necessary that an ambassador should visit the various German courts, armed with a considerable amount of diplomatic power. The accomplished abbate was sent on this delicate mission in 1696, with the title of envoy extraordinary, and he fulfilled his difficult task so well that Pope Innocent XI, in recognition of certain privileges he had secured for the Hanoverian Catholics, consecrated him bishop of Spiga on the Sea of Marmora (modern day Biga in Turkey). Between 1709 and 1723 Steffani served as Vicar Apostolic of Upper and Lower Saxony, a new Roman Catholic diaspora jurisdiction, embracing Upper and Lower Saxon territories.

In 1698 he was sent as ambassador to Brussels, and after the death of Ernest Augustus in the same year he entered the service of the Elector Palatine, John William, at Düsseldorf, where he held the offices of privy councillor and protonotary of the Holy See. Invested with these high honours, Steffani could scarcely continue to produce dramatic compositions in public without grievous breach of etiquette. But his genius was too importunate to submit to repression; and in 1709 be ingeniously avoided the difficulty by producing two new operas: Enea at Hanover and Tassilone at Düsseldorf in the name of his secretary and amanuensis Gregorio Piva, whose signature is attached to the scores preserved at Buckingham Palace. Another score, that of Arminio in the same collection, dated Düsseldorf, 1707, and evidently the work of Steffani, bears no composer's name.

Steffani did not accompany the elector George to England; but in 1724 the Academy of Ancient Music in London elected him its honorary president for life; and in return for the compliment he sent the association a magnificent Stabat Mater, for six voices and orchestra, and three fine madrigals. The manuscripts of these are still in existence, and the British Museum possesses a very fine Confitebor, for three voices and orchestra, of about the same period. All these compositions are very much in advance of the age in which they were written; and in his operas Steffani shows an appreciation of the demands of the stage very remarkable indeed at a period at which the musical drama was gradually approaching the character of a merely formal concert, with scenery and dresses.

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Alarico il Baltha, cioè L'audace re de' gothi, drama per musica en tres actos (1687). Aria del acto tercero, Sarò felice un Dì.

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Niobe, Regina di Tebe, dramma per musica en tres actos (1688). Aria del acto primero, Dove sciolti a volo i vanni.

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Enrico Leone, drama en tres actos (1689). Aria del acto primero, Tra le braccia de la morte.

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Orlando Generoso, dramma en tres actos (1691). Aria del acto primero, Se credessi ciò che credi.

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Esa fue la viñeta No. 400. :D

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