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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 11 Ene 2013 21:36 
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Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814) He was born in Königsberg, East Prussia, to lutenist and Stadtmusiker Johann Reichardt (1720–1780). Johann Friedrich began his musical training, in violin, keyboard, and lute, as a child. He was a student of Timofey Belogradsky, who in turn was a student of Sylvius Leopold Weiss. When Reichardt was ten years old, his father took the choir in which he sang, the "Wunderknaben", on a concert tour in East Prussia. After being encouraged by Immanuel Kant, Reichardt later studied Jurisprudence and Philosophy in his hometown and in Leipzig from 1769 to 1771. In 1771, he escaped civil service by embarking on a Sturm-und-Drang tour as a virtuoso. He returned to Königsberg in 1774 and became the Kammersekretär (Chamber Secretary) in Ragnit. After Reichardt sent his opera Le feste galanti as a sample piece to Friedrich II, he was appointed to the position of the Royal Prussian Court Kapellmeister, a position previously held by Carl Heinrich Graun. Two years later he already withdrew from the job and married the singer, pianist and Lieder composer Juliane Benda, a daughter of Frantisek Benda. Of their progeny was one daughter, Louise Reichardt (1779–1826), who became a noted songwriter, and a son, Wilhelm (1777–1782).

On the return from his first trip to Italy in 1783, Reichardt stopped in Vienna, where he met Kaiser Joseph II and Christoph Willibald Gluck. Further musical trips to France and England did not produce anticipated success, he therefore returned unwillingly to Berlin. In 1786, he developed close friendships with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Friedrich Schiller and Johann Georg Hamann. Further attempts to gain new ground in Paris failed, yet he had become zealous with revolutionary ideas. After the appearance of his Vertrauten Briefe (Intimate Letters) in 1792, he was released in 1794 without pay from his position as Court Kapellmeister for being sympathetic to the French Revolution. He lived first in Hamburg, where he released the journal Frankreich, but from 1794, he lived in Giebichenstein near Halle. In 1796, he was pardoned for his support of the revolution and appointed to the post of the director of the saline (salt mine) in Halle. From there, he often traveled to Berlin to lead the premieres of his compositions.

Another trip to Paris in 1802 lessened his fascination for the French and French politics considerably: he became an opponent of Napoleon. Four years later, when his manor was plundered by French troops, he fled to Danzig where he was active as a patriot and freedom fighter. Napoleon's brother Jérôme, located in Kassel, allowed Reichardt to return and named him to Theater Director in 1807. This lasted only nine months. In 1809, he traveled to Vienna looking for success. After experiencing the music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, he became receptive to the Viennese Classic, although he was too late. However, he soon returned to Giebichenstein where he died alone, from a gastric illness. His stage works were quickly forgotten after his death but his strophic Lieder and Ballads im Volkston (in folk style) enjoyed considerable popularity throughout the 19th century, aided by the Wandervogel movement. Much of Reichardt's reputation as a composer rests on his Lieder that number about 1500, using texts by some 125 poets. Important among these are the settings of Goethe's texts, some of which were known to, and influenced, Schubert. He was also known by his Singspiele, a genre that he refined with Goethe's support. He also wrote 49 songs to Herder's texts. Aside from his music, his work as an essayist has maintained its value up to this day. The collection of poems Des Knaben Wunderhorn is, in the epilogue, dedicated to Reichardt. This was probably in the expectation that he would set the text to music. However, such a setting from Reichardt was never composed.

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Erwin und Elmire, Singspiel en dos actos (1793). Final.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 18:51, editado 3 veces en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 20 Ene 2013 21:16 
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Élisabeth-Claude Jacquet de La Guerre (1665-1729) She was born into an important family of musicians and masons in the parish of Saint-Louis-en-l'Ile, Paris. A childhood prodigy, she played the harpsichord before King Louis XIV to inaugurate her career as a virtuoso performer at the age of five. At the court of Louis XIV she was noticed by Madame de Montespan, and was kept on in her entourage. She later married the organist Marin de La Guerre, son of the late organist at the Sainte-Chapelle, Michel de La Guerre, in 1684 and left the court. Thereafter she was known as Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre. After her marriage she taught and gave concerts at home and throughout Paris, and gained much acclaim. Her first publication was her Premier livre de pièces de clavessin, printed in 1687. It was one of the few collections of harpsichord pieces printed in France in the 17th-century, along with those of Chambonnières, Lebègue and d'Anglebert. On 15 March 1694, the production of her opera Céphale et Procris at the Académie Royale de Musique was the first written by a woman in France.

The next year, 1695, she composed a set of trio sonatas which, with those of Marc-Antoine Charpentier, François Couperin, Jean-Féry Rebel and Sébastien de Brossard, are among the earliest French examples of the sonata. The next few years heralded the deaths of almost all of her near relations: her only son, mother, father, husband and brother Nicolas, and were not productive times. The year 1707 saw the publication of Pièces de Clavecin qui peuvent se jouer sur le Viollon, a new set of harpsichord pieces, followed by six Sonates pour le viollon et pour le clavecin. These works are an early example of the new genre of accompanied harpsichord works, where the instrument is used in an obbligato role with the violin; Rameau's Pieces de clavecin en concerts are somewhat of the same type. She returned to vocal composition with the publication of two books of Cantates françoises sur des sujets tirez de l'ecriture in 1708 and 1711. Her last publication, 15 years before her death, was a collection of secular Cantates françoises (c. 1715).

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Céphale et Procris, tragédie lyrique (1694). Comienzo.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 18:54, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 25 Ene 2013 22:19 
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Giovanni Paisiello (or Paesiello) (1740-1816) He was born at Taranto, Apulia, and educated by the Jesuits there. He became known for his beautiful singing voice and in 1754 was sent to the Conservatorio di S. Onofrio at Naples, where he studied under Francesco Durante, and eventually became assistant master. For the theatre of the Conservatorio, which he left in 1763, he wrote some intermezzi, one of which attracted so much notice that he was invited to write two operas, La Pupilla and Il Mondo al Rovescio, for Bologna, and a third, Il Marchese di Tidipano, for Rome. His reputation now firmly established, he settled for some years at Naples, where, despite the popularity of Niccolò Piccinni, Domenico Cimarosa and Pietro Guglielmi, of whose triumphs he was bitterly jealous, he produced a series of highly successful operas, one of which, L'ldolo cinese, made a deep impression upon the Neapolitan public.

In 1772 Paisiello began to write church music, and composed a Requiem for Gennara di Borbone, of the reigning dynasty. In the same year he married Cecilia Pallini, and the marriage was a happy one. In 1776 Paisiello was invited by the empress Catherine II of Russia to St Petersburg, where he remained for eight years, producing, among other charming works, his masterpiece, Il barbiere di Siviglia, which soon attained a European reputation. The fate of this opera marks an epoch in the history of Italian art; for with it the gentle suavity cultivated by the masters of the 18th century died out to make room for the dazzling brilliance of a later period. When, in 1816, Gioachino Rossini set a revised version of the libretto to music, under the title of Almaviva ossia la inutil precauzione the fans of Paisiello stormed the stage. Rossini's opera, now known as Il barbiere di Siviglia, is now acknowledged as Rossini's greatest work, while Paisiello's opera is only infrequently produced -- a strange instance of poetical vengeance, since Paisiello himself had many years previously endeavoured to eclipse the fame of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi by resetting the libretto of his famous intermezzo, La serva padrona.

Paisiello left Russia in 1784, and, after producing Il Re Teodoro at Vienna, entered the service of Ferdinand IV of Naples, where he composed many of his best operas, including Nina and La Molinara. After many vicissitudes, resulting from political and dynastic changes, he was invited to Paris (1802) by Napoleon, whose favor he had won five years previously by composing a march for the funeral of General Hoche. Napoleon treated him munificently, while cruelly neglecting two more famous composers, Luigi Cherubini and Etienne Méhul, to whom the new favorite transferred the hatred he had formerly borne to Cimarosa, Guglielmi and Piccinni. Paisiello conducted the music of the court in the Tuileries with a stipend of 10,000 francs and 4800 for lodging, but he entirely failed to conciliate the Parisian public, who received his opera Proserpine so coldly that, in 1803, he requested and with some difficulty obtained permission to return to Italy, upon the plea of his wife's ill health. On his arrival at Naples Paisiello was reinstated in his former appointments by Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim Murat, but he had taxed his genius beyond its strength, and was unable to meet the demands now made upon it for new ideas. His prospects, too, were precarious. The power of the Bonaparte family was tottering to its fall; and Paisiello's fortunes fell with it.

The death of his wife in 1815 tried him severely. His health failed rapidly, and constitutional jealousy of the popularity of others was a source of worry and vexation. Paisiello is known to have composed 94 operas, which are known for their gracefully beautiful melodies. Perhaps the best-known tune he ever wrote is Nel cor più non mi sento from La Molinara, immortalized when Beethoven composed variations based on it. Paisiello also wrote a great deal of church music, including eight masses; as well as fifty-one instrumental compositions and many stand-alone songs. Manuscript scores of many of his operas were presented to the library of the British Museum by Domenico Dragonetti. The library of the Gerolamini at Naples possesses an interesting manuscript compilation recording Paisiello's opinions on contemporary composers, and exhibiting him as a somewhat severe critic, especially of the work of Pergolesi.

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La Daunia felice, festa teatrale en un acto (1797). Final, Ed il ciel mill'anni e poi.

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La serva padrona, intermezzo en dos actos (1781). Aria del primer acto, Sempre in contrasti conte si sta.

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Pulcinella vendicato nel ritorno di Marechiaro, farse per musica en un acto (ca. 1765). Dueto, Gioia de st'arma mia, cara nennella.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 18:58, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 03 Feb 2013 23:34 
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Frank Martin (1890-1974) He was born in Geneva, Switzerland. He was the tenth and youngest child of a clergyman's family. He played and improvised on the piano even before he went to school. By the age of nine he composed charming children's songs that were perfectly balanced without ever having been taught musical forms or harmony. A performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion, heard at the age of twelve, left a lasting impression on the composer, for whom J.S. Bach remained the true master. He attended Latin school and, to please his parents, went on to study mathematics and physics at the University of Geneva for two years. Simultaneously he started studying piano and composition with Joseph Lauber, who initiated him in the "craft", especially in instrumentation. Between 1918 and 1926 Frank Martin lived in Zurich, Rome and Paris, working on his own, searching for a personal musical language.

In 1926 he founded the "Société de Musique de Chambre de Genève" which he led as pianist and harpsichord player for ten years. He taught improvisation and theory of rhythm at the "Institut Jacques-Dalcroze" and chamber music at the Geneva Conservatory of Music. He was artistic director of the "Technicum Moderne de Musique" from 1933 to 1940 and president of the Swiss Association of Musicians between 1942 and 1946. In 1932 he became interested in the 12-tone technique of Arnold Schönberg. He incorporated certain elements into his own musical language, creating a synthesis of the chromatic and twelve-tone techniques, without however abandoning the sense of tone - that is, the hierarchical relations between notes. Le Vin Herbé (1941) was the first important work in which he completely mastered this very personal idiom. Together with the Petite Symphonie Concertante (1944-45) it established his international reputation.

Martin's many musical activities in Switzerland interfered with the peace and concentration his compository work required. Consequently he decided tot move to the Netherlands in 1946. For ten years he lived in the centre of Amsterdam followed by a definitive move to the little town of Naarden in 1956. Between 1950 and 1957 he taught composition at the "Staatliche Hochschule für Musik" in Cologne. After that he ceased all teaching activities, preferring to work at Home Page and to make occasional tours with the Swiss cellist Henri Honegger and to conduct his own music at the invitation of many important musical centres, amongst others in the United States. He received many honours and awards from all over the world. In the extensive "oeuvre" of Frank Martin oratorios play an important part. In May 1973 he conducted the world premiere of his Requiem in the Cathedral of Lausanne which left a deep impression on a large audience. His compositions kept the same vitality until the end of his life. He worked on the cantata Et la Vie l'Emporta until ten days before his death.

Der Sturm, ópera en tres actos (1952-1955). Escena quinta del acto segundo.

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Monsieur de Pourceaugnac, comedia en tres actos (1960-1962). Final.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 18:59, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 12 Feb 2013 23:33 
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Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco Sánchez (1644–1728) He was born in Villarrobledo and spent his childhood in the town Fuencarral (now a district of Madrid), the birthplace of his father, Miguel de Torrejón, a huntsman in Philip IV of Spain's employ. In 1658, while still in Spain, he entered into the service of Pedro Fernández de Castro y Andrade, Count of Lemos, who later became the viceroy of Peru. In 1667, he traveled to Lima along with the new viceroy, as one of the viceroy's 113 personal attendants. From 21 November 1667 until 1672 he was superintendent of the armoury at Lima. In 1673 he was appointed magistrate and chief justice of Chachapoyas province, a position he held for four years. In 1676 he was appointed maestro di capella at the Cathedral of Lima, replacing Juan de Araujo. He remained in that position until his death more than fifty years later in 1728. Torrejón was deeply religious, and adhered unconditionally to the ethical and legal framework of his time, as well as the precepts of the Catholic church. Married twice (his first wife died) he had a total of six children, five of whom entered religious orders. The composer died in Lima.

Torrejón's works are some of the most important to the Spanish baroque movement in the American colonies. Throughout his career as a composer he received wide acclaim; his villancicos were known as far away as Guatemala, and at both Trujillo and Cuzco his opinions were solicited before crucial musical decisions were taken. Fifteen of his original manuscripts are preserved in the historical archives of the Cathedral of Guatemala. He is the author of the first known opera written in America, La púrpura de la rosa (1701). His rorro (lullaby) was still sung in Cuzco many years after his death. Of particular interest are his polychoral compositions for two organs. A second organ was installed in the Lima Cathedral in 1680 and Torrejón y Velasco's composed a polychoral villancico specially for the two organs.

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La púrpura de la rosa, ópera en un acto (1701). Fragmento.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:03, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 17 Feb 2013 17:05 
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Justin Heinrich Knecht (1752-1817) He was born in Biberach an der Riss, Germany, where he learnt to play the organ, keyboard, violin, and singing. He attended a Lutheran collegiate institution in Esslingen am Neckar from 1768 to 1771, when he became Lutheran preceptor and music director in Biberach, which was a free imperial city until 1803, and had a rich cultural life. He became organist of St Martin's church in 1792, which was used simultaneously by Lutherans and Catholics. He led an energetic, busy musical life; he composed for the theatre and church, organised subscription concerts, and taught music theory, acoustics, aesthetics, composition, and instruments at the Gymnasium, which was affiliated to the Musikschule in 1806. He went to Stuttgart in December 1806 in the hopes of a post there as Kapellmeister or similar, but after being appointed Direktor beim Orchester by King of Württemberg in the April 1807, returned in 1808 to his former life in Biberach, where he remained for the rest of his life.

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Die Aeolsharfe, oder Der Triumph der Musik und Liebe, ópera romantica en cuatro actos (1807–1808). Aria del acto tercero, Es schmett're Allahs Donner mich hinab ins Mak der Ede. Ensemble del acto tercero, O rette sie, des Himmels Gute.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:07, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 18 Feb 2013 9:22 
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Ya que Torrejón y Velasco era español, podemos poner, si a zelenka le parece bien, su biografía wikipediana en español. Por un momento temí que sólo hubiera dos líneas, pero no hemos sido tan quijotescos:

Su vida

En 1658, todavía en España, ingresa como paje en la casa del Conde de Lemos, quien posteriormente es designado Virrey del Perú. Así, en 1667, Torrejón viaja a Lima junto con el nuevo Virrey, en calidad de gentilhombre de cámara.

En 1676 es designado Maestro de Capilla de la catedral de Lima, en reemplazo de Juan de Araujo. De profundas convicciones religiosas, toda su vida y su obra estuvo signada por la adhesión incondicional al marco ético y legal de la época, y el cumplimiento de los preceptos religiosos.

Casado en dos ocasiones, tuvo un total de seis hijos, de los cuales cinco ingresaron en órdenes religiosas.

Obras

La obra de Torrejón representa la cúspide del villancico barroco español en la América colonial. Quince de sus manuscritos originales se conservan únicamente en el archivo histórico de la catedral de Guatemala. Así mismo, es el autor de la primera Fiesta cantada conocida de América: La Púrpura de la Rosa ,(1701) El "rorro" (canción de cuna) de Torrejón se siguió cantando en el Cuzco años después de su muerte, como resultado combinado de la fama y aprecio social que gozó en vida, y -fundamentalmente- de la exquisitez de su estilo musical.

La Púrpura de la Rosa

El Virrey del Perú, Melchor Portocarrero, encargó a Torrejón y Velasco la composición de una pieza de carácter dramático-musical, en ocasión de celebrarse el 18º aniversario del rey Felipe V.

La obra fue estrenada el 9 de Diciembre de 1701 en el Palacio del Virrey, en Lima, y en ella se recrean los episodios relativos a los amoríos de la mitología clásica, con un libreto basado en textos de Calderón de la Barca, de una impecable calidad literaria, rico en metáforas y distintas alusiones al humorismo y al erotismo.

La ópera vá precedida de una alegoría a Felipe V, que pone de relieve la bondad y la justicia del monarca; las musas Calíope, Terpsícore y Urania se unen al drama que canta a España en los coros a cuatro voces.

El drama narra los amores entre Venus y Adonis, que son el motivo de los celos y los deseos de venganza de Marte, quien hace que Adonis, el efebo amado por Venus, sea herido de muerte por un jabalí. Al caer Adonis sobre unas rosas blancas, su sangre las tiñe de púrpura, pero Júpiter, compadecido de las desdichas de los dos amantes, los eleva juntos al Olimpo, a Adonis en forma de flor y a Venus como el lucero nocturno.

La notación musical de Torrejón y Velasco conserva mucho del carácter y de la idiosincrasia contenidas en las comedias de Calderón que ya habían sido musicalizadas con anterioridad por Juan Hidalgo, compositor y maestro de música en la corte madrileña, quien fuera el autor de la primera versión de La púrpura de la rosa (1660), Esta obra fue posiblemente fuente de inspiración para Torrejon, en la composición de su propia versión.

Desde el punto de vista musical, el concepto barroco que hereda España a América luce placenteramente permeado de un variedad de ritmos latinoamericanos, hecho que sirve para afirmar el mestizaje de las culturas del imperio español y las latinoamericanas, recibiéndose entre ambas influencias culturales evidentes, como en caso de las tonadas, las jácaras y diversos ritmos populares latinoamericanos del siglo XVII.

En el repertorio instrumental de La púrpura de la rosa destaca el empleo de cuerdas, guitarras, arpas, clavecines, chirimías, trompetas, bombo, castañuelas, panderos, bajones y sacabuches.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 24 Feb 2013 22:02 
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Ernő Dohnányi (1877-1960). Dohnányi was born in Pozsony, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (today Bratislava, capital of Slovakia). He first studied music with his father, a professor of mathematics and amateur cellist, then starting at age 8 with Carl Forstner, organist at the local Cathedral. In 1894 he entered the Budapest Academy of Music, studying piano with István Thomán and composition with Hans von Koessler (a cousin of Max Reger). Béla Bartók was one of his classmates there. Dohnányi's first published composition, his Piano Quintet in C minor, earned the approval of Johannes Brahms, who promoted the work in Vienna. After a few lessons with Eugen d'Albert, Dohnányi made his debut in Berlin in 1897 and was at once recognized as an artist of high attainments. Similar success in Vienna followed, and he then made the tour of Europe with the greatest success. He made his London debut at a Richter concert in the Queen's Hall, where he gave a memorable performance of Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 4. Using his position as a conductor, Dohnányi pioneered the performance of Bartók's more accessible music to boost its popularity. During the following season, he visited the United States and established his reputation playing the Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 4 for his American debut with the St. Louis Symphony. Unlike most other famous pianists of the time, Dohnányi did not limit himself to solo recitals and concerto solos, but also played chamber music. In 1901 he completed his Symphony No. 1, his first foray into orchestral work. Although he was heavily influenced by his established contemporaries, most audibly Brahms, he demonstrates a considerable handling of the compositional challenge of symphonic writing.

He married Elisabeth (Elsa) Kunwald (who was also a pianist), and in 1902 their son, Hans von Dohnányi, was born. Hans would later distinguish himself as a leader of the anti-Nazi resistance in Germany and was a friend and collaborator of Dietrich Bonhoeffer (his brother-in-law). Hans, ultimately executed during the final stages of the Second World War, was father of the well-known orchestral conductor, Christoph von Dohnányi. He also had a daughter, Greta, with Elsa Kunwald. On Joseph Joachim's invitation, Dohnányi taught at the Hochschule in Berlin from 1905 to 1915. Going back to Budapest, Dohnányi organized over a hundred concerts there each year. In 1919, he was appointed director of the Budapest Academy, but was replaced the same year for purely political reasons. He became music director of the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra and promoted the music of Bartók, Zoltán Kodály and other Hungarians, but did not play his own music very often. Dohnányi's pupils include Andor Földes, Ervin Nyiregyházi, Géza Anda, Annie Fischer, Edward Kilenyi, Bálint Vázsonyi, Sir Georg Solti, Istvan Kantor, Joseph Running, György/Georges Cziffra, Frank Cooper and Ľudovít Rajter. Before World War I he met and fell in love with a German actress (also described as a singer and ballerina) named Elza Galafrés, who was married to the Polish violinist Bronisław Huberman, but they could not marry as their respective spouses refused to divorce them. They nevertheless had a son, Matthew, in January 1917. They both later gained the divorces they sought, and they were married in June 1919. Dohnányi also adopted her and Huberman's son, Johannes.

In the 1920 season, he played the complete piano works of Beethoven. During the 1920s, he also recorded several of his works on the AMPICO reproducing piano. In 1934 he was again appointed director of the Budapest Academy, a post he held until 1941, when he resigned from the post "as a protest against the anti-Jewish legislations [of that year]". That year he also had to disband the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra. In 1937 he met Ilona Zachár, who was married with two children. By this time he had separated from his second wife Elza Galafrés. He and Ilona travelled throughout Europe as husband and wife, but were not legally married until after they had settled in the United States. In 1943 he founded the Budapest Symphony Orchestra. He remained in fascist Hungary during World War II, using his influence and expending his own fortune to protect Jewish musicians. The war claimed the lives of both of his sons, one in combat and the other executed by the Nazis for his role in a plot to assassinate Hitler. After the war, a whisper campaign against him was promoted by the new Communist government of Hungary, to the point where he found it necessary to leave. Dohnányi moved with Ilona Zachár to Argentina, Mexico and finally the United States, and they married in New York in February 1949. He was not able to revive his career as a concert pianist, but continued to compose and became interested in American folk music. His last orchestral work (excepting his 1957 revision of the Symphony No. 2), American Rhapsody (1953), was written for the sesquicentennial of Ohio University and included folk material, for example, Turkey in the straw, On Top of Old Smokey and I am a poor wayfaring stranger. He and his third wife became American citizens in 1955. Dohnányi also taught for ten years at the Florida State University School of Music in Tallahassee. In 1946, he was initiated as an honorary member of the Epsilon Iota Chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity at the Florida State University. He used a German form of his name Ernst von Dohnányi for most of his published compositions.

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Tante Simona, ópera bufa en un acto (1912). Final.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:12, editado 2 veces en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 02 Mar 2013 10:46 
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Alessandro Stradella (1639-1682) He was born in Nepi. Not much is known about his early life, but he was from a Tuscan aristocratic family, educated at Bologna, and was already making a name for himself as a composer at the age of 20. In 1667 he moved to Rome where he composed for Christina, Queen of Sweden, mostly sacred music. He was involved in performances of four operas, two by Francesco Cavalli and two by Antonio Cesti. Stradella began to live a dissolute life. With Carlo Ambrogio Lonati he attempted to embezzle money from the Roman Catholic Church, but was found out: he fled the city, only returning much later when he thought it was safe. His numerous incautious affairs with women began to make him enemies among the powerful men of the city, and he had to leave Rome for good. In 1677 he went to Venice, where he was hired by a powerful nobleman, Alvise Contarini, as the music tutor to his mistress, Agnese Van Uffele. She and Stradella began an affair and fled Venice together for Turin. Contarini followed and instructed the Archbishop that Uffelle and Stradella must marry or that Uffelle must take the veil. She did the latter, and then the two married in October; however, as Stradella left the convent after signing the contract, he was attacked from behind on 10 October by two would-be hired assassins, who believed him dead when they left him in the street. He was not. The two assassins took asylum with the French ambassador. That Contarini had hired the attackers became known, leading to complaints from the duke of Savoy to Louis XIV; the matter became a topic of negotiation between the courts. In 1678 Stradella fled to Genoa, where he met again with Lonati. He was paid to compose music for the local nobility and the Teatro Falconi. In 1682 he was stabbed to death at the Piazza Banchi. His infidelities were well-known, and a nobleman was rumored to have hired the killer; but the identity of the killer was never discovered, and the hiring was never substantiated. Stradella was buried in the Santa Maria delle Vigne.

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Moro per amore; opera per musica (1681). Aria, Su, pensieri, alla difesa. Aria, A consiglio, amorosi pensieri.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:13, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Enrique Mario Casella (1891-1948) Nació en Montevideo. Era hijo del violinista y director de orquesta Italo Casella. Su familia se mudó en 1896 a Buenos Aires, donde asistió al Conservatorio de Ferruccio Cattelani y de Edmundo Pallemaerts. En 1907, viaja a Europa para estudiar en la Academia de Música de Angelo Consolini en Bolonia, con Marco Enrico Bossi y con Carpessani, y a partir 1909 en la Real Escuela de Música en Bruselas con César Thompson, Paul Gilson y Maurice Staminat. En 1913 perfeccionó su formación en París con Paul Antoine Vidal y con Foucher. De 1914 a 1918 vivió y trabajó en Buenos Aires y en Goya, provincia de Corrientes (a 780 km de Buenos Aires). Desde 1920, residió en San Miguel de Tucumán, siendo profesor en la Academia de Bellas Artes. Junto con Luis Gianneo fundó en 1922 el Instituto Musical Tucumán. En 1923 fundó el Trío Tucumán y en 1940 el Cuarteto Tucumán. Desde 1937 fue Director del Coro Santa Cecilia y de la Banda Provincial de Música.

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Chasca, ópera en un acto (1939). Fragmento.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:15, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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En YouTube sólo hay un fragmento, dice que la partitura está extraviada pero ha sido reconstruida por Lucio Bruno-Videla.
Se lo iba a comentar a un amigo del baloncesto que es uruguayo y que hace poco me preguntó si conocía óperas de su país. Le dije que no, claro, y que cantantes sólo a José Soler y a Schrott. Pero si descubre que Casella se pasó al bando argentino, con lo que bien que le caen...

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Jean-Féry Rebel (1666–1747) He was born in Paris, a son of the singer Jean Rebel, a tenor in Louis XIV's private chapel, was a child violin prodigy. He became, at the age of eight, one of his father's most famous musical offspring. Later, he was a student of the great composer Jean-Baptiste Lully. He was a violinist, harpsichordist, conductor and composer. By 1699, at age 33, Rebel had become first violinist of the Académie royale de musique (Royal Academy of Music) and at the Opéra. He traveled to Spain in 1700. Upon his return to France in 1705, he was given a place in the prestigious ensemble known as the Vingt-quatre violons du roy. He was chosen Maitre de Musique in 1716, and also conducted the Concert Spirituel during the 1734-35 season. His most important position at court was Chamber Composer, receiving the title in 1726. Rebel served as court composer to Louis XIV and maître de musique at the Académie, and directed the Concert spirituel.

Rebel was one of the first French musicians to compose sonatas in the Italian style. Many of his compositions are marked by striking originality that include complex counter-rhythms and audacious harmonies that were not fully appreciated by listeners of his time. His Les caractères de la danse combined music with dance, and presented innovative metrical inventions. The work was popular and was performed in London in 1725 under the baton of George Frideric Handel. In honor of his teacher, Rebel composed Le tombeau de M. Lully. Some of Rebel's compositions are described as choreographed "symphonies." Among his boldest original compositions is Les élémens which describes the creation of the world.

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Ulysse, tragédie lyrique (1703). Fragmento.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:17, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Bruno Maderna (1920-1973) Nació en Santa Ana di Chioggia, un pequeño pueblo cercano a Venecia. Su madre, Caroline Maderna, nunca confesó quien era su padre (aunque muchos indicios apuntan a que fue Umberto Grossato, su paternidad nunca fue reconocida oficialmente). A los cuatro años comenzó a tocar varios instrumentos, entre ellos el violín, y su abuelo ya comentaba que el niño era un genio. Su familia regentaba un local con pista de baile y allí comenzó a tocar. En 1930, ya era la la atracción principal de la banda «Happy Grossato Company», que tocaba arreglos de canciones en hoteles, cabarets, y locales de variedades. Dos años más tarde, a los doce años, Bruno dirigió a la Orquesta de La Scala en un concierto operístico de repertorio del siglo XIX. Entre septiembre de 1932 y diciembre de 1935, también dirigió con gran éxito en Milán, Trieste, Venecia, Padua y Verona, en la Arena. Su fama alertó a las autoridades fascistas en 1933, que al descubrir que Grossato no era su padre legal, lo colocaron bajo la tutela de un músico de La Fenice y comenzaron a mostrarlo internacionalmente como una gloria del régimen, un niño prodigio conocido como «Brunetto». Esta vida agotadora acabó cuando Irma Manfredi, diseñadora de moda en Verona, intervino y lo acogió en su propia casa. Se matriculó en el Conservatorio de Milán, y estudió violín y composición; paralelamente tuvo profesores particulares privados, como el compositor Arrigo Pedrollo, que le daba lecciones de música. Aun así, suspendió el curso intermedio en el Conservatorio en 1937. Se trasladó a Roma —gracias a la intervención del Vaticano, con una carta de recomendación del cardenal Montini, futuro papa Pablo VI— y estudió en la Accademia di Santa Cecilia. Se graduó en 1940 en composición y musicología, bajo la dirección de Alessandro Bustini, que también enseñó a Goffredo Petrassi, Guido Turchi y Carlo Maria Giulini.

A pesar de una infancia tan azarosa, Maderna maduró sin más contratiempo, y según los testimonios de quienes le conocieron, era un joven sensato, sabedor de sus limitaciones y plenamente consciente de toda la publicidad que le había rodeado. Después de graduarse, amplió sus conocimientos de dirección de orquesta en el año 1941 en la Accademia Musicale Chigiana, en Siena con Antonio Guarnieri y de composición en Venecia, en el curso internacional de doctorado para compositores (1942-43) que impartió Gian Francesco Malipiero. Malipiero le inculcó su gran amor por la música antigua, especialmente por la veneciana. Maderna estará siempre agradecido a Malipiero, como compositor y sobre todo, como hombre. Durante la II Guerra Mundial, Maderna estuvo en el Ejército en los años 1942 y 1943. En febrero de 1945 se unió a los partisanos y fue capturado y encarcelado en un campo de concentración. Tras la guerra, Maderna tuvo dificultades para seguir su carrera musical en un país desolado. La amistad con Malipiero le sirvió para obtener un puesto de profesor de solfeo en el Conservatorio de Venecia, una labor que desempeñara, con alguna discontinuidad, hasta 1952. En esos años tenia una clase muy numerosa, a la que asistía Luigi Nono, con quien entabló una amistad de por vida (en aquel momento, Nono solo era un joven estudiante de derecho y con él coincidió más adelante como compañero de estudios en los los «Cursos Internacionales de Verano de Darmstadt»). En esos años del Conservatorio estudió en profundidad la música antigua y medieval, estudios que fueron la base para muchos de sus primeras composiciones. Malipiero le presento al editor Ricordi, para quien transcribió entre 1947 y 1949 numerosos conciertos de Vivaldi. Malipiero también consiguió que estrenase una de sus obras, la Serenata per 11 instrumenti, en la Biennale de Venecia de 1946, la primera que se celebraba tras la guerra. En febrero de ese mismo año 1946 se casó con su primera esposa, Raffaella Tartaglia. Debido a las estrecheces económicas por las que pasaban, Maderna se vio obligado a aceptar todo tipo de encargos, componiendo para la radio y el cine, y también música de baile.

En 1948 asistió en Venecia al Curso Internacional de Dirección que impartió Hermann Scherchen, que le sugerió que acudiese al «Curso Internacional de Verano de Nueva Música» de Darmstadt («Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik). Al año siguiente, en 1949, estrenó allí una de sus obras, las B.A.C.H. Variationen per due pianoforti, en un marco en que interpretara muchas de sus obras y en el que llegaría a ser docente a partir de 1956. El 25 de enero de 1950 dirigió en París su primer concierto en el extranjero y por invitación de Karl Amadeus Hartmann, lo hizo en Mónaco el 28 de febrero de ese mismo año. (Hartmann también le llamó para dirigir un concierto en el festival «Música Viva» de Múnich, en la primera vez que llamaron a un director extranjero). Fue el inicio de una fatigosa pero exitosa e incesante carrera de director de orquesta, que le llevó a dirigir en Italia, Alemania, Suecia, Bélgica y Austria. En Darmstadt conoció a lo largo de los años a los compositores más implicados con la nueva música, a Boulez, Messiaen, Stockhausen, Cage, Unruh, Pousseur y también a los intérpretes más importantes de música contemporánea, como los hermanos Kontarsky, Lothar Faber, Severino Gazzelloni, Han de Vries, Christiane Edinger y Theo Olof, muchos de los cuales le solicitaron nuevas piezas (por ejemplo, la pieza Musica su due dimensioni fue escrita para Gazzelloni). También en Darmstad conoció a su nueva compañera, Beate Christine Köpnick —con la que vivió a partir de 1950 (pero sin casarse hasta 1972), y que le dio tres niños— y al dramaturgo Harro Dicks, cuya influencia se manifiesta en sus trabajos escénicos. En 1951, mientras estaba en el «Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik» en Darmstadt participa en la fundación del «Kranichsteiner Kammer-Ensemble» (conjunto de cámara). En 1952, Nono y Maderna se afiliaron al Partido Comunista Italiano (PCI). Trabajó durante largos periodos en Milán con un grupo de intelectuales —Luigi Rognoni, Luigi Pestalozza y Roberto Leydi— y de músicos —Luciano Berio, Cathy Berberian y Giacomo Manzoni— que rejuvenecieron la escena musical italiana con nuevas iniciativas. Maderna, Nono y Berio, entre otros, fundaron en 1955, en Milán, el «Studio di Fonologia Musicale» de la RAI, con el fin de explorar la composición de música electrónica, siendo muy importante el uso de la cinta magnetofónica. También organizaron los «Incontri Musicali», para la difusión de la música contemporánea (1956-60), una iniciativa que incluía una revista musical (supervisada por Berio), un conjunto (fundado y dirigido por Maderna) que ofrecía ciclos de conciertos y una serie de conferencias, conferencias que fructificaron en un Curso de técnica dodecafónica que impartió en el Conservatorio de Milán en 1957-58, a solicitud de su director Giorgio Federico Ghedini.

En 1963, Maderna se estableció definitivamente en Darmstadt, aunque a menudo volvió a Milán para dirigir la Orquesta de la Radio y utilizar las instalaciones del «Studio di Fonologia Musicale». A pesar del tiempo que le ocupaban sus cometidos en Darmstadt y Milán, siguió componiendo y sobre todo dirigiendo, de modo que será ya más conocido como director que como compositor. Adquirió pronto una reputación como exponente de la música contemporánea, especialmente de la Segunda Escuela de Viena y del grupo de compositores ligados a Darmstad — Berio, Boulez, Nono, Lutovslawski, Ligeti —, aunque fue de todas maneras un director ecléctico, que podía alternar diferentes estilos musicales. Más adelante amplió su repertorio incluyendo las principales obras clásicas del siglo XX — Debussy, Ravel, Bartok, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Messiaen —, a los sinfonistas austro-alemanes — Brahms, Mahler — así como algunas óperas — Dido y Aeneas, de Purcell; Parsifal, de Wagner; Pelléas et Mélisande, de Debussy; y varias obras de Mozart. Sus interpretaciones de las sinfonías de Mahler abrieron nuevos cauces. (Queda un buen testimonio de dicha etapa, ya que Maderna realizó muchas grabaciones, que fueron comercializadas en LP y que hoy día pueden conseguirse en CD). Además, su experiencias como compositor, le hizo una figura de enorme significación para muchos compositores italianos no mucho más jóvenes que él: Nono, Clementi y Donatoni, entre otros, han reconocido la influencia decisiva que ejerció en el inicio de sus carreras.

Durante los años 1960 desarrolló una importante labor concertística en Holanda y en 1965 realizó una gira por Estados Unidos, dirigiendo la Orquesta Sinfónica de Chicago y la Orquesta Filarmónica de Nueva York. En 1967 enseñó en el Conservatorio de Roterdam y los años 1967, 1968 y 1969 impartió cursos de dirección orquestal en el «Salzburg Mozarteum». Ese mismo año 1969, también impartió un cursos de dirección orquestal en Darmstadt. Entre sus alumnos tuvo a Lucas Vis, Yves Prin y Gustav Kuhn. En el año 1970 adoptó la nacionalidad alemana, pero sin renunciar nunca a la italiana. En los años setenta frecuenta los EE.UU., siendo invitado a dirigir el Juilliard Ensemble y las orquestas de Chigago, Boston, Philadelphia, Miami, New York, Cleveland, Washington y Detroit. En 1971 y 1972 fue director del «Berkshire Music Center» (ahora Tanglewood Music Center, (Berkshire, Massachusetts, EE.UU.). En 1972 fue nombrado director de la «Orchestra Sinfonica della RAI» de Milán y ese mismo año obtuvo el Premio Italia con su obra radiofónica Ages. En abril de 1973, en Ámsterdam, durante las pruebas de su opera Satyricon, se le diagnosticó un cáncer de pulmón, pero continuó igualmente componiendo y dirigiendo hasta pocos días antes de su muerte. Falleció el 13 de noviembre de 1973 en Darmstadt, cuando trabajaba en Pelléas et Mélisande de Debussy, y fue enterrado con honores cívicos. En 1974, póstumamente, la ciudad de Bonn le concedió el Premio Beethoven por su obra Aura. Muchos compositores escribieron obras en su memoria, como Boulez — Rituel in Memoriam Bruno Maderna —, Berio — Calmo —, Franco Donatoni — Duo pour Bruno — o Paul Méfano — A Bruno Maderna, 1980). La ciudad de Cesena en su honor, puso al conservatorio su nombre, «Conservatorio Bruno Maderna di Cesena». En 1997, en Forli, se fundó la «Orchestra Bruno Maderna», la principal orquesta de la Romagna.

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Don Perlimplín, ópera radiofónica (1962). Quadro primo - Prima parte.

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Hyperion, ópera (1962-1969). Aria partie 1.

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Satyricon, ópera (1973-1974). Final.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:22, editado 1 vez en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Rayner Taylor (1747-1825) He was born in Soho, in Westminster, England between August and November, 1747. As a boy he sang in the choir at the Chapel Royal for many years, notably singing at the funeral of George Friderich Handel in 1759. Music historian J.R. Parker reported that Taylor's hat accidentally dropped into the composer’s grave during the funeral ceremony. He studied organ, singing, and music composition with Samuel Arnold in London as a teenager, and at the age of eighteen became the organist at Chelmsford. In 1765 he was appointed the resident composer and musical director for the Sadler’s Wells Theatre and the Marylebone Gardens, serving in both positions for more than 25 years.

In 1792 Taylor immigrated to the United States, partially due to the encouragement of his pupil Alexander Reinagle. He initially settled in Baltimore where he taught music and gave musical extravaganzas. Music historian O. G. Sonneck wrote of these concerts, “As a specialty he cultivated burlesque olios or ‘extravaganzas’ which came dangerously near being music hall skits.” Taylor then briefly worked as the organist for St Anne’s Church in Annapolis before moving to Philadelphia in 1795 to become the organist at St. Peter's Church, serving in that capacity until 1813.

Taylor became one of the major figures in the musical life of Philadelphia during the first quarter of the nineteenth century. He was one of the most sought after music teachers in the city and was active both as a performer and composer in the church and the theatre. He moved in the most important musical circles in Philadelphia, counting among his close friends Benjamin Carr, J.G. Schetky, and his former pupil Alexander Reinagle. He was one of the founding members of the Musical Fund Society in 1820. As a performer he was particularly admired for his organ improvisations as well as for his renditions of comic theatre songs.

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The Aethiop, or The Child of the Desert, ópera (1813). Fragmento.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:28, editado 2 veces en total

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 05 Abr 2013 19:58 
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Charles Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921) Nació en Paris. Perdió a su padre cuando contaba solamente cuatro meses, y recibió la primera formación musical de su madre y de una tía; se mostró tan precoz en tal aspecto que a los cinco años pudo ya componer para el piano. Fue confiado entonces a la guía del pianista Stamaty, el cual lo presentó como pequeño virtuoso del piano en 1845. Estudió órgano con Benoit y composición con Halévy. En 1852 ganó un concurso con una Ode à Sainte Cécile; en 1853 fue nombrado organista de St. Merry, y en el año 1857 alcanzó el mismo cargo en la Madeleine; en 1861 obtuvo la cátedra de piano de la escuela Niedermeyer. Su primera obra teatral, Le timbre d'argent (1864-1865), no pudo llegar a la escena. Temperamento batallador y enérgico, fundó en 1871 la Société Nationale de Musique, orientada concretamente al fomento de la ejecución y la difusión de la nueva música francesa. La iniciativa, a la cual se adhirieron, entre otros, Lalo, Franck, Bizet y Fauré, tuvo una gran importancia en sus aspectos de propulsión y organización. En 1872 Saint-Saëns pudo ver finalmente satisfechas sus aspiraciones escénicas: siquiera con escaso éxito, fue representada en la Opéra Comique su obra La princesse jaune.

A esta misma época pertenecen también algunas de las producciones sinfónicas más importantes del músico en cuestión: los poemas La rueca de Onfalia (1871), Phaéton (1873), Danza macabra (1874) y La jeunesse d'Hercule (1877), en el que puede percibirse una intensa influencia de las obras análogas de Liszt; y los Conciertos segundo, tercero y cuarto para plano, en sol menor (1868), mi bemol mayor (1869) y do menor (1875), cuyo virtuosismo pianístico alcanza un alto nivel de perfección en cuanto a la forma y a la estructura, y de acuerdo con esquemas imponentes y grandiosos, pero generalmente poco profundos. La infatigable actividad creadora de Saint-Saëns abarca todos los campos de la música y todas las combinaciones instrumentales y vocales posibles. Sin embargo, su gran aspiración fue siempre el teatro. Le dio ocasión a ello Liszt, su gran admirador, quien promovió en Weimar la representación de Sansón y Dalila, celebrada el 2 de diciembre de 1877; se trata de la mejor obra del músico, tanto por su vigoroso planteamiento como por la fuerza de los coros y la amplitud descriptiva del ambiente, y es la única aún hoy representada.

Cuanto posteriormente compusiera Saint-Saëns presenta bien un valor académico y formal, siquiera siempre dentro de una cuidadosa dignidad de construcción -así, Henri VIII (1883), Ascanio (1890), Déjanire (1898), los dos Conciertos para violín en do mayor y si menor (1879 y 1880), la Sinfonía en do menor con órgano y dos pianos (1886), y el quinto Concierto para piano (1895)-, o bien meramente descriptivo y agradable, como en la "fantasía zoológica" El carnaval de los animales (1886). Durante las últimos años de su vida Saint-Saëns fue interesándose cada vez más por la música popular árabe; pero su producción no anduvo, en este ámbito, más allá de un genérico orientalismo amanerado. Acariciado por el honor y la fama, terminó casi repentinamente sus días en Argel, donde pasaba el invierno desde hacía ya algunos años, poco después de la primera Guerra Mundial, en cuya época figuraba entre los nacionalistas más ardientes. Notables son también los artículos que publicó durante su vida en diversos periódicos y revistas, reunidos en los volúmenes Harmonie et mélodie, Portraits et souvenirs y, singularmente, École buissonnière.

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La princesse jaune, ópera cómica en un acto (1872). J'aime dans son lontain mystere.

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Última edición por Zelenka el 25 May 2014 19:28, editado 2 veces en total

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